Lawns - These are dense, uniform, carefully leveled and resistant grass stands, consisting of one or several types of sod-forming plants. In French, gazon means turf. Lawns are the perfect backdrop for a variety of woody, shrub and flowering plants.
FF Demur, a well-known Russian specialist in ornamental plant growing, pointed out that nothing enhances the beauty of plants like a green carpet. It is necessary that the green of the lawn is not varied, or, at least, that it is composed of the most delicate and most suitable herbs for each other. He emphasized that no matter how beautifully the garden is decorated, if the lawns do not take up most of the space in it, it never makes the full effect.
Types of lawns:
The very name "parterre lawns" is the lawns of ceremonial, clearly presented front viewing places. They are created to decorate the most critical areas in forest parks, parks, gardens and squares.
Parterre lawns require a very careful approach to their creation and need constant care, they are usually arranged in ceremonial, well-observed places. The highest requirements are imposed on the parterre lawn:
- It must be uniform and maintain a high decorative effect throughout the season.
- The appearance of weeds is unacceptable on it.
The lawn will look very original, on which you can place various retaining walls, curbs, garden lamps, ponds, alpine slides and much more.
Various compositions of evergreens look especially impressive, first of all, various types of thuja, juniper and other conifers.
Grass stands on parterre lawns must be kept in excellent condition. Single-species crops are better suited to the parterre lawn, rather than grass mixtures. In America, Canada, Finland and Sweden, the decorative qualities of meadow bluegrass are highly valued Poapratensis... High quality seeds of its varieties are used in Europe Baling Opal, Stola, Kompact, Barzan... These grasses form the perfect green carpet of fine, delicate grass that is resistant to mowing, cold and disease.
Good taste, a sense of proportion, understanding of the general harmony, beauty of the ensemble and the predetermined nature of the destination, of course, allow avoiding unnecessary piles, chaos, disharmony when decorating lawns. If it is necessary to decorate parterre lawns, the total area of flower beds should occupy no more than 20-30% of the area. Ensembles and mosaics should be low and solid. The parterre lawn should evoke a sense of solemn simplicity and at the same time splendor.
Park, garden and park or ordinary lawns - the most common type of grass cover in suburban green areas, forest parks, park compositions, inter-block green complexes, squares. They are much more economical than parterre lawns, although they also need good-quality and timely care. These are perennial lawns, usually formed from various grass mixtures. Most of the grass cover in these areas, as well as in private estates, is ordinary lawns. They are inferior to parterre lawns in decorativeness and do not need such careful maintenance. Requirements for such a lawn: it must be resistant to drought, mechanical damage and other adverse factors.
For these purposes, varieties of herbs are used, a significant proportion of which is red fescue. Festuca nibracharacterized by its resilience and wide ecological adaptation. Very promising varieties Tatiana, Cascade, Bingo... An important component in ordinary garden and park lawns - pasture ryegrass Lolium perenne... This loose shrub, fast-growing cereal forms a lawn cover in a short time, due to which its share in grass mixtures accounts for up to 40%, sometimes in the form of a set of several varieties Entrar, Loretta... For this type of lawn, a small amount (10-15%) is also used meadow bluegrass and fine bent grass Highland.
The creation of a lawn covering in shaded areas often ends in failure. Under these conditions, very rare and weak vegetation appears, strongly oppressed by the lack of light. Over time, it turns yellow and almost completely disappears. To maintain the decorativeness of the sod cover in such places, grass mixtures are used, consisting of shade-tolerant species and varieties. Half should be of grade Committee, varieties Vein - 10%. This also includes pasture ryegrass Belied - 30%, as well as meadow bluegrass or fine bent grass - about 10%. It is imperative to use sheep fescue, in particular, its variety Tirmula... It is undemanding to soil moisture and fertility and withstands some shading. The permissible growth of grass on such lawns is up to 4–6 cm. The grass must be beautiful, green, clean, even and sufficiently uniform.
The advantages of grass mixtures are as follows: Grass species differing in ecological and biological properties have different requirements for growing conditions, and therefore the natural features of a particular area are used much more widely and fully. A thicker and denser sod is formed, as well as a denser and denser grass cover (herbage). In addition, mixed lawn grass stands are characterized by increased resistance to unfavorable environmental factors, that is, not all components of the grass stand will be adversely affected by strong changes in daily temperatures, prolonged droughts, prolonged flooding or flooding of areas, trampling.
When selecting grasses for mixed grass stands biological types of plants should be taken into account. For example, loose shrubs grow better on heavy soils, and under these conditions are considered the leading components of lawn grass mixtures. Loose bush sod-forming grasses form a loose, but evenly growing sod. And dense bush varieties form an overly dense turf and an uneven hummocky herbage of low decorative qualities. Rhizome grasses (bent grass, creeping wheatgrass) do not create dense, continuous turf and are intended for light soils, where the processes of vegetative renewal are more successful. Rhizome-friable grasses, such as meadow bluegrass, grow on heavy and light soils. They form fairly uniform, tightly closed grass stands and firm sod.
Meadow lawns, as a rule, occupy significant areas on the territory of forest parks, large city parks and form the basis of the so-called meadow parks. Often, these lawns are formed on the basis of the natural meadow vegetation available in a given place by means of its reconstruction and reclamation.
The purpose and purpose of meadow lawns - this is the selection of individual colorful lakes, ponds, canals, picturesque groves and curtains.
The assortment of sod-forming plants used to create meadow lawns is extensive and varied. It includes all types of grasses recommended for parterre and park lawns, as well as a number of types of riding grasses and legumes. The grass stand of meadow lawns is complex in composition and structure and is designed for minimal maintenance. That is why such lawns must be natural and natural looking. Meadow lawns play a great aesthetic role, have important sanitary and hygienic and even economic and economic importance.
To be continued
Sergey Tyunis, designer, Vitebsk
Lawn in the garden
The lawn is one of the most important elements of any garden. In the open space of the lawn, both decorative tree and shrub species and perennial flowers look advantageous. Perfect greenery, low-cut grass, not a single weed in an area not less than a few hectares - and all this without much maintenance or effort on the part of the owner. This is exactly the idea that many of our compatriots have about English lawns, they want to see these lawns on their personal plots. Are the legendary English lawns so beautiful, unpretentious and resistant to all kinds of external influences? Without a doubt, a well-groomed lawn is beautiful, but it is very difficult to grow it, and maintenance is not at all as easy as we would like. The correct selection of grasses in grass mixtures, corresponding to the functional purpose of the lawn and the environmental conditions of the site where it is supposed to be arranged, is essential for creating a lawn.
Lawns are divided into parterre, ordinary, meadow, as well as special purpose and can be created in lighted or shaded, wet or dry areas. each of them has its own functional purpose, requires its own cultivation and maintenance agricultural technology.
Parterre lawns are laid out in the most important (ceremonial) places: in front of the facade of the house, along the main alley, in a particularly decorative corner of the garden. Such lawns are very laborious and whimsical, in shady, not warmed up by the sun, waterlogged places, the parterre lawn will not grow. The height of the herbage should not exceed 3cm. In the more humid, maritime climate of England, the grass stand is maintained at a level of 1-2 cm, in central Russia this is not possible, the grass will fall out, and the lawn will go bald. Grass mixtures of parterre lawns contain at least 50% bluegrass. Without going deep into cultivation techniques, we note that such a lawn needs regular feeding with special fertilizers, daily (!) Watering and regular mowing. But that's not all - periodically, the sod needs to be pierced, and sanding should be carried out in the fall. It is clear that the area of the parterre lawn cannot be large, unless, of course, the owners have a genetically fixed instinct for cultivating lawns.
Simple lawns are created in less critical areas, but they also need to be highly decorative and sufficiently stable. Open, but less important areas of the garden are covered with simple lawns. On such a lawn, flower beds, especially ornamental shrubs and conifers look great, reservoirs and alpine slides look great. Simple lawns are good where neatness is required, but not chic and, accordingly, they occupy larger areas than parterre ones. A simple lawn can be laid out in an open, sunny place or in partial shade. A simple lawn lawn differs from a patern lawn by the height of the grass stand not exceeding 5 cm, by the composition of the grass mixture, the basis of which is usually red fescue, and by less laborious maintenance. A haircut is carried out every ten days, watering as needed (but drying out of the soil is not permissible), feeding once a month. Sanding and piercing of the turf improves the lawn, it is desirable to carry out them annually, but it can be done once every two or three years.
Meadow lawns are forbs, consisting mainly of various tall broad-leaved grasses with the addition of meadow flowers. Where it is not possible to grow a parterre or a simple lawn, a meadow-type lawn is laid out. When mowing, the height of the grass can reach 10 cm. Mowing depends on your desire, but at least once a month. Watering as needed, top dressing in spring and late summer. Meadow lawns are sown under the canopy of the stand, in large glades and forest edges in parks. On a personal plot, it is advisable to organize a meadow lawn in the garden, along the outer side of the fence (instead of thickets of weeds) or on a farm yard in order to combat dirt. Probably, the well-groomed appearance of the meadow lawns, which occupy vast territories in England, played a decisive role in creating the “image of an English lawn” that grows by itself.
If you add flower seeds to the grass mixture of meadow lawns - cornflower, poppy, daisies, alissumi, Iberis, toadflax - you get the so-called Moorish lawn. Summer plants blooming almost from early spring to early autumn give the impression of a real meadow. Care for Mauritanian lawns is the same as for meadow lawns, but mowing is carried out once a season in late summer - early autumn, then the seeds of meadow flowers that make up the grass mixture have time to ripen and crumble. The next year, the seeds will sprout, ensuring the resumption of flowering summer plants. This rule must be followed, since in case of an untimely, earlier mowing, the seeds do not have time to ripen and, over time, the range of flowers will be significantly depleted. The Moorish lawn is sown in the same places as the meadow, but the Moorish lawn is more decorative. It is very good to fill with such a lawn places where mowing is difficult for one reason or another: near hedges, as a background behind a mixborder, around tree trunks. Sowing a Moorish lawn in the tree trunk circle will save you from weeding and loosening it, although this technique is suitable only for trees with a fairly transparent crown, under which there is no thick shade.
Lawns for special purposes are sown in order to strengthen slopes, slopes, turf of roadsides, gentle banks of reservoirs. For this, grass mixtures are used from cereals that grow rapidly and form a dense sod. Sports lawns also belong to special lawns.
A sports lawn is a very specific type of lawn, characterized by slow growth of grass and its increased resistance to trampling. For sports lawns, special grass mixtures have been developed, which are quite expensive. In addition, during the construction of sports lawns, great attention is paid to preparing the base of the lawn, including laying a drainage system and leveling the soil surface, which should be strictly horizontal. This is done to prevent both blocking and rapid drying of the lawn. It is clear that on personal plots, sports lawns are laid out on sports grounds, if any, and they are looked after in the same way as for parterre.
From the foregoing, it follows that on a plot of 15 acres, the parterre lawn cannot occupy more than 50 sq.m. They are carefully and regularly looked after, they do not walk on it, they do not plant anything on it, they do not walk the dogs. The parterre lawn is almost a cult.
A simple lawn on the site under consideration can occupy from 200 to 300 sq.m. It is allowed to place flower beds of specimen or group plantings of especially decorative woody plants. You can walk on such a site, as well as put light (plastic) garden furniture on it. It is not advisable to play football and too often and persistently basketball or badminton. Dogs are not allowed to run on the lawn until the turf is fully formed.
Meadow and Moorish lawns can occupy the remaining land free from planting of other plants on the site. Ideally, they should replace the weeds that remain in this or that corner of the garden. If the area is available for mowing, a meadow lawn is sown, if not, you can sow a Moorish lawn.
Lawns. Device and content
Description of the presentation for individual slides:
CLASSIFICATION OF LAWNS METHODS OF DEVELOPMENT OF LAWNS DEVELOPMENT OF SPORTS LAWNS DEVELOPED BY KAMENEV S.V., TEACHER OF PROF.DISCIPLINES
A cultivated lawn is an artificial cover created by the cultivation of various grasses, mainly perennial cereal species, which form a sod as a result of many years of development. Sod is the upper layer of the soil cover, which includes densely intertwined grass rhizomes, underground stems and humus.Sod is formed as a result of frequent mowing of grassy plants and is able to withstand heavy loads (when walking by visitors to the site).
There are three types of cultural lawns: - sports, arranged at stadiums, hippodromes, tennis courts, playgrounds - special, arranged at airfields, slopes of highways and railways, hydraulic structures, in parking lots - decorative, created at landscaping facilities, - in gardens and parks, squares, boulevards, forest parks, meadow parks, residential and industrial buildings. Ornamental lawns constitute the main fund of landscaping objects, on which volumetric elements of the composition are placed - trees, shrubs, flower beds, small forms, equipment.
Ornamental lawns are subdivided into parterre, ordinary, or garden and park, meadow, or mixed, and flowering. Parterre lawns are arranged in the foregrounds of landscape gardening compositions, at the entrances to public buildings, around monuments, fountains, sculptures, and decorative reservoirs. Usually they are arranged on squares in public gardens, as well as in front of administrative buildings, theaters, museums, as a rule, on plots in the form of a square, oval, or circle. Parterre lawns should retain a uniform color throughout the growing season and have a dense, low, evenly closed grass stand. To create parterre gases, perennial narrow-leaved cereal grasses, undersized species and forms, with a corresponding structure of stems and leaves, a low tillering bush and with its high intensity of development are used, forming a "velvety" cover, these include meadow bluegrass, red fescue.
A parterre lawn is created from one or two types of grasses that form a uniform grass stand. Ordinary garden and park lawns make up the largest part of the herbaceous cover of gardens and parks, boulevards, central areas of forest parks, inner-quarter territories, interdistrict objects. Basic requirements for ordinary lawns: resistance to mechanical damage, - durability, - decorative, - shade tolerance. An ordinary lawn, after many years of grass development, forms a sod saturated with intertwined roots, underground stems, humus ... The sod of such a lawn is quite tear-resistant, resistant to horizontal shifts and damage.
To create ordinary lawns, broad-leaved cereal grasses with various types of bush tillering are applicable: rhizome, loose and rhizome-loose. At the same time, mixtures of three or five types of herbs are used, such as: meadow bluegrass (varieties of bluegrass), red fescue, pasture ryegrass.
How to care?
A low-growing lawn will require the same maintenance as a normal lawn, except for the frequency of mowing.
In early spring, you need to make sure that no puddles form on your future lawn. For this reason, it is advisable not to walk on the site, where there will be a green lawn, during the snow melting period. If a hole has formed somewhere, then it is necessary to pierce the ground in order to take the water away. Otherwise, decay processes may begin. Top dressing of the lawn should be carried out after the onset of heat. Like other plants, lawn grasses need nitrogen and phosphorus during the beginning of the growing season. These elements contribute to the growth of green mass and roots.
In areas with arid climates, the lawn should be mulched with a layer of fertile soil to reduce the amount of moisture evaporating. Also, the lawn needs aeration after winter, as the soil is compacted. Using a simple pitchfork or a special aerator rake, the turf is evenly pierced. And of course, you need to carry out a general cleaning (scarification): rake moss and felt with a fan rake.
In summer, the lawn needs to be watered. The amount of watering is highly dependent on specific weather conditions.
Approximate recommendations for watering the lawn: once every 3-4 days, moisten the soil to a depth of 15-20 cm. This event is best done early in the morning or at sunset, since the bright sun can lead to burns.
In addition, in the summer, the lawn needs feeding every 2-3 weeks.
Autumn lawn care activities are about the same as in spring: top dressing, aeration, combing.
As for the haircut, it must be carried out depending on the growth rate of the grass cover. It is necessary to maintain the height of the grass at the level of 4-7 cm. This is where the main advantage of a low-growing lawn manifests itself, because it will need to be mowed only a few times a year.
Types of lawns: parterre, sports, Moorish, meadow, landscape gardening
The arrangement of the lawn is not only a tribute to fashion, but also an opportunity to make the space around you more comfortable.
Lawns for special purposes
Used to strengthen slopes and slopes, turfing the banks of reservoirs and roadsides. Grass mixtures for such a lawn should be composed of fast growing grasses that form a dense turf.
Their very name suggests that they will constantly experience mechanical stress. And they break them up, respectively, at stadiums and sports grounds. That is why the composition of herbal mixtures for their sowing includes slow-growing herbs that have elasticity and great resistance to trampling. These include grasses such as meadow bluegrass, sheep's fescue, perennial ryegrass. They have wide shoots and form a dense turf. This allows the lawn to maintain a uniform dark green grass cover.
Garden and park lawns
The parterre is a lawn that you can admire, and only occasionally walk on it. It plays the role of a background in large-scale landscape compositions and has a large area. That is why it is the most difficult to maintain. To create it, the site is freed from weeds, the surface of the earth is carefully leveled, the plant land is prepared, and only after that they start planting several types of cereals. They are able to form a velvety, dense and uniform grass cover throughout the summer season. Parterre lawns are usually laid out in plain sight, in ceremonial places. They require regular feeding, shearing, occasional piercing of the turf and autumn sanding.
Meadow lawns. With their help, you can create beautifully flowering meadows and lawns. The herb mixture consists of tall grasses with the addition of flowering meadow crops. Meadow lawns look good on the edges of parks, in gardens, perfectly decorate the outer sides of fences and fences. Watering such a lawn is carried out as needed, and the number of haircuts performed is in direct proportion to the wishes of its owner.
The Moorish lawn is more beautiful and decorative than the meadow lawn. And all due to the fact that a wide variety of flowering grasses are used for its sowing. Cornflowers, poppies, daisies and Iberis create a “fun” lawn that blooms all summer long. They can be used to fill hard-to-mow places in the garden: place it near hedges or around trees. The Moorish lawn is cut only at the beginning of autumn, when the ripe seeds already have time to crumble to the ground. Thus, the next spring the lawn will sow itself, preserving its longevity and beauty.
The company "PositiveProject" offers
Parterre, park, meadow lawns - 1 - garden and vegetable garden
Lawns, which are so popular today, have long been considered an indispensable element of any cultural landscape around the world. The grassy green cover adds neatness and completeness to any landscape composition (Fig. 12). The turf cover from cultivated grasses is different from the natural one.
There are three types of cultivated lawns:
? sports, arranged at stadiums, racetracks, tennis courts and playgrounds
? special, arranged at airfields, slopes of highways and railways, hydraulic structures
? decorative, created at landscaping objects - in gardens, parks, squares, forest, meadow parks, boulevards, residential and industrial buildings.
Ornamental lawns are an important part of landscaping. Volumetric elements of the composition are placed on them - trees, shrubs, flower beds, garden furniture, courts and sports grounds, garden sculpture.
Decorative lawns are of several types: parterre, ordinary garden and park, meadow or mixed, flowering. Currently, landscape designers use various combinations of lawns.
Parterre lawns. They are created in the foregrounds of compositions, at entrances, around fountains, sculptures, decorative reservoirs. Usually they are round or rectangular, but in a small house, lawns of various shapes are possible.
The following requirements are imposed on parterre lawns:
? during the entire growing season, they must retain a uniform, juicy color
? have a dense, low, evenly closed herbage.
To create parterre lawns, perennial grasses are used, undersized, with a thin structure of stems and leaves, a low-lying tillering bush and a high intensity of its development (meadow bluegrass, red fescue). A parterre lawn is usually created from one or two types of grass, which form a uniform grass stand and can be combined with trees and shrubs.
Ordinary garden and park lawns. These lawns are more natural and less labor intensive to set up and maintain. They are the main part of the turf cover and consist of local, part of the wild grasses. The basic requirements for them are based on practical considerations. These are resistance to mechanical damage, durability, decorative effect, shade tolerance. The sod of such a lawn must be strong against tearing and vertical punctures, resistant to horizontal shifts and damage.
To create an ordinary lawn, cereal grasses with various types of bush tillering are used: rhizome, loose and rhizome-loose. In this case, mixtures of three to five types of herbs are used, such as meadow bluegrass, red fescue, common bent, perennial ryegrass in the southern regions, you can use bent grass, sheep fescue, wheat grass, awnless fire, two-row paspalum, comb or other similar mixtures.
Meadow lawns. Such lawns are arranged in large areas of parks, forest and meadow parks. They are more natural and environmentally friendly, as they do not disturb the ecosystem, as is the case with the arrangement of classic lawns by removing some types of plants and sowing others.
Such lawns are created, as a rule, by improving existing grass stands of natural origin. The territories allotted for glades and lawns and covered with natural grass are partially loosened, coarse-stemmed weeds are removed from the surface, and then grasses of cultivated species are sown along with cereals, legumes are sown - clover, alfalfa and some others.
Blooming lawns. These are lawns of flowering plants that are created in the meadows and lawns of large parks and forest parks, in residential areas.
Such lawns are annual (from poppy, cornflowers, alissum, toadflax, Iberis, viola, marigold, escholzia, marigolds, verbena) and perennial (from clover, poppy, chamomile, yarrow, bellflower). The introduction of small bulbous plants, such as scilla, muscari, tulips, chives, hyacinths, daffodils, is allowed. Cereals in grass mixtures for flowering perennial lawns make up at least 40-50% to preserve the general green background.
Sports lawns. Especially resistant surfaces with low bushy grass, which are created in gardens and parks and are used as courts, playgrounds and playgrounds. An area with natural turf used for this purpose quickly loses its appearance.
The sod on such lawns must have increased strength and be resistant to mechanical damage, and quickly recover.
The strength of the sod depends on the composition of soil mixtures, underlying rocks, drainage, as well as on the species composition of herbaceous plants, the content of various types of grasses in the mixtures.
Lawns of a special type. Designed for the improvement of space, strengthening the soil, are of great sanitary and hygienic importance. Turf of lawns improves the ecological situation, eliminates dustiness in the air.
The lawn absorbs harmful fumes, dust and gas, and also has sound-deadening properties. Grasses evaporate water and thereby increase air humidity and regulate the thermal regime of the territory.
The microclimate of the site is significantly improved if there is a lawn on it. This creates not only comfortable living conditions, but also contributes to the better fruiting of trees and shrubs, the productivity of garden crops.
How to arrange and grow a lawn? After you have determined the type of lawn that you need, it remains to choose how to create it. You can choose from the following options, each with its own advantages:
? sowing seeds of lawn grasses on the prepared surface
? hydroseeding - applying seeds to a prepared surface as part of special solutions
? sodding, or laying of rolled sod on the prepared surface.
Characteristics and seeding rates of lawn grass seeds
Lawn grasses are classified as one-, two- and perennial.
By the type of tillering and root formation, as well as by their height, they are classified into rhizome (undersized and creeping) loose bush (riding) dense bush (not forming sod and having a hummocky dense bush) rhizome-loose bush (having a tillering node, like in loose bush grasses, and stems, like rhizome grasses).
When organizing a lawn, it is necessary to take into account that the seeds of lawn grasses have a prolonged germination period, rooted poorly, and poorly resist the effects of adverse factors during the period of germination and the formation of herbage. They are small, have a small supply of nutrients, and have a relatively low germination rate. The larger the seeds, the greater their absolute weight, the higher the germination capacity, economic suitability and germination energy. Low germination and low germination energy are characteristic of meadow grass seeds, high germination capacity - seeds of perennial ryegrass. When arranging lawns, grass seeds of a certain state standard are used. To obtain friendly and full shoots, seeds of the first and second class are used. By means of experimental field cultivation and meadow cultivation, the calculated seeding rates of 1 kg of seeds for a number of types of lawn grasses have been established. At the same time, such characteristics as the size and absolute weight of seeds, their economic suitability, as well as the type of shoot formation, the nature and rate of development of individual grass species in ontogeny, and the vitality of cenopopulations in cultivated herbaceous cenoses were taken into account (Table 1).
Table 1. The ratio of lawn grasses in the mixture when sowing them on different soils
To create lawns, various grass mixtures are used, depending on the climatic and soil conditions of the area, taking into account the ecology and biological characteristics of plants. The principle of making up a grass mixture is to mix grass seeds of various types of tillering, location and power of the root system, of different heights (usually 2–5 types of herbs, mainly rhizome, loose bush types of tillering).
The seeding rate of lawn grass seeds is calculated using a special formula:
Where N- rate of grass mixture n - the estimated seeding rate of seeds in a pure form of this type of grass, kg / ha R - the percentage of participation of this species in the mixture in pure form,% D - actual economic suitability of seeds,%. Before starting work on the device of the lawn, grass seeds are prepared in a special way.So, the seeds of ryegrass and bluegrass, which have hairs and have poor flowability, are passed through a scarifier 40-50 days before sowing. 10 days before sowing, the seeds are laid out in the sun and heated for a week, as a result of which their germination increases. To increase germination and shorten the germination period, the seeds are soaked in 0.1% urea solution for 24 hours, and then washed and dried. To avoid damage to seedlings by diseases and pests, they are treated with TMDT (400 g / c), 40% phosphamide emulsion concentrate (800 g / c) mixed with granosan (200 g / c). Seed dressing with fungicides and pre-sowing treatment with fertilizers should be carried out simultaneously.
For the arrangement of lawns, grass seeds should be used, zoned for a given soil and climatic zone.
Preparing the soil to create a lawn
The surface of the area for the lawn must be flat, planned according to the design elevations of the vertical layout of the facility.
Before arranging a lawn, a base is prepared - an underlying layer (subsoil) and a root-inhabited soil layer of fertile land.
If there is a vegetative layer of soil on the site, then it should be loosened, harrowed, cleaned of debris and weeds, fertilized and top-up fertile soil to the design marks. The thickness of the top fertile soil layer should be at least 12–20 cm.
During work on vertical leveling, the existing vegetation layer in most cases is pre-raked and collected in piles. Further, the surface is leveled and the underlying layer is loosened to a depth of at least 15–20 cm, followed by disking. Sand should be added to heavy clay soils, and peat and loam should be added to light sandy soils to impart cohesion and increase water retention capacity. The structure of the sub-base layer must be porous in order to ensure normal water and air exchange with plants. When preparing the upper root layer, it should be borne in mind that the reaction of the soil should be slightly acidic (about 5.5–5.6), and the mechanical composition of the soil should be medium, light loamy or sandy loam and have a crumbly structure (the soil is loosened to particles of 1– 2 cm). When preparing the root layer, mineral fertilizers are applied to the soil.
Approximate doses of fertilizers (kg / ha):
? in the forest zone, on podzols: nitrogen fertilizers - 40-50 phosphorus - 60-90 potash - 40-60
? in the forest-steppe and steppe zone, on chernozems: nitrogen fertilizers - 20-30 phosphorus - 40-60 potash - 30-40.
When leveling plant soil, fertilizers are evenly distributed. Harrowing is carried out in a few days. Plowing and loosening, leveling of the underlying layer of the base is carried out using mechanisms on wheeled tractors. Vegetable soil for the top layer of the base is brought up by light vehicles. The leveling of the top layer is carried out by micro-cultivators with appropriate attachments.
Even if the plot is large, the use of heavy equipment is not recommended: the losses caused by the wheels of heavy vehicles or tractor tracks to the soil and the root system of plants do not justify the savings from its use.
Before sowing, the surface of the site is pre-treated. The top layer is leveled and freed from large stones and other foreign inclusions.
The structure of the top layer should be finely lumpy, free of debris. For this purpose, the area is robbed with cutting of large lumps, after which the surface is rolled with a roller weighing 75-100 kg with a rough (ribbed or toothed) surface. Thus, the entire area is leveled, large lumps of soil are removed, favorable conditions are created for maintaining moisture in the capillaries of the soil layer, which will subsequently be used by young seedlings.
On large areas, sowing of seeds is carried out with the help of fertilizer seeders. They also use special machines that carry out several operations: sowing seeds at a set rate, applying mineral fertilizers (mixture) in a dry form, embedding seeds into the soil to a depth of 0.5-2 cm using a special rake, rolling the site using a lattice roller.
The moisture content of the soil layer along the entire depth of the base should be at least 60% of the total field moisture capacity. In dry weather, the soil should be moistened to the full depth of the base before sowing. The best sowing dates are spring and autumn (along with winter crops) for dry areas - February – March. With sufficient soil moisture, the lawn can be created throughout the growing season.
Small grass seeds (bluegrass, bent grass) are buried to a depth of 0.5-1 cm, larger seeds (ryegrass, fescue) - by 2-3 cm. over the entire surface of the site. This creates a favorable microclimate for seeds, and the seedlings are more friendly and even. Seedling care consists in watering and timely weeding. The first mowing of the grass stand should be carried out after the beginning of tillering and when the grass reaches a length of 8–10 cm. For irrigation, it is best to use sprinklers.
Sodding, that is, laying the finished turf, is used to strengthen slopes, edge of paths and flower beds, cover small areas, and repair lawn cover.
Sod is purchased from specialized farms, harvested in natural meadows or grown on purpose. If you prefer the latter method, then on the "nursery" site, under the layer of nutrient substrate, on which the grasses are sown, you should put a film or any other cover impermeable to roots. The growing substrate consists of high-moor and lowland peat mixed with fertile soil in equal parts or peat with composts (4: 1). Substrate thickness - up to 10 cm.
The substrate must be neutral. If the reaction of the mixture is acidic, it is necessary to add lime; the application rate is 2-3 kg of CaCO3 per 1 m 3 of substrate. The optimum acidity of the substrate is pH 5.6–7.5. Mineral fertilizers are added to the prepared mixture at the rate: for potash - 36 kg / ha, phosphoric - 40, nitrogen - 60-90 kg / ha (for 1 m 3 of the mixture: 1.5 kg of superphosphate, 1 kg of potassium nitrate and 0.5 kg of ammonium nitrate).
Seeds of lawn grasses are sown on the substrate, and the seeding rate is increased by 1.5 times compared to the usual one. Sowing is carried out in spring, the optimum temperature for the growth of grasses is 15-24 ° C. Crops are watered regularly, 2 times a day. The amount of water should not exceed 3-5 l / m 2. Then they switch to one-time watering at a rate of 10 l / m 2. Watering can be combined with liquid fertilizing with mineral fertilizers.
After the grass in the sown area grows above 12–15 cm, mowing is carried out, leaving 4–5 cm. The finished sod easily rolls into a roll. It is cut into strips 4–6 m long and 1–1.5 m wide. The cut sod is twisted around a wooden stick in the form of a rolled roll. Such rolled lawns can be purchased at specialized farms. The best quality and most resilient lawns are grown on thermohydrophilic plates and plastic mesh. This turf is used for laying on sports and playgrounds and is extremely resistant to wear and tear.
Prepare the soil before laying the rolled lawn. The site is loosened to a depth of 10-15 cm, moistened and rolled with a lattice roller. Rolls of sod are spread over the prepared surface, the edges of the sod bands are tightly fitted to each other and temporarily fixed with wooden pins. The seams between the tapes are filled with plant soil. Grass seeds are sown at the seams. The entire section of the new lawn is watered and rolled with a roller weighing up to 0.5 tons in two mutually perpendicular passes.
After 10-12 days, the sod grows to the soil, and after two weeks, you can mow the regrown grass. Watering a new lawn should be abundant, but not more than 60–70% of its full moisture capacity.
When using natural turf, the area from which you intend to remove the sod is cleared of weeds, loosened, mineral fertilizers are applied to it, lawn grasses are sown, and surface soil is planted and irrigated. The sod can be used as intended for the next year. The sod is harvested with special sod cutters, cutting it into strips 25-30 cm wide, 3-4 cm thick and 30-90 cm long, depending on its strength. Then they are stacked in such a way that the pieces of turf touch the roots. Sod laying on the plots is carried out in the same way as roll lawn laying.
The sodding method is simple and versatile, it can also be used when constructing slopes, natural and artificial elevations, near water bodies, swimming pools, on playgrounds and sports grounds.
The size of the harvested sod can be different - from small plates measuring 30? 30 cm to rolls more than 1 m long. The sod can be stored for 5–7 days, while it should be spread out on the surface of the plot, shaded in hot weather and watered periodically. Compacted sods are abundantly moistened: they need to be watered five times for their rooting.
For sowing slopes, the following herbal mixture is used: meadow bluegrass - 30%, meadow fescue - 30, white bent - 30, white clover - 10%. With slopes of more than 45 °, instead of attaching seeds of lawn grasses by sowing, a mat in a cage is used, which is made by laying sod tapes in two mutually perpendicular directions. The distance between the sod belts when sowing seeds of lawn grasses inside the cages is no more than 1.5 m, when planting shrubs and flowering plants - no more than 1 m. The cages are filled with plant soil, which is compacted flush with the sod belts. To secure the roadbed shoulder, the edge of the sod tape is deepened into the ground.
With a partial sodding, pieces of turf of any configuration are left between the sites.
There are several options for filling such cells. A group of perennial flowering plants, shrubs or lawn grasses that differ from the mixture of grasses of the main background looks very good inside the cells.
Sodding is best done during the most intensive growth of lawn grasses: in spring - from May 15 to June 15, in autumn - from August 15 to September 15, and in summer from July 15 to August 15 (for the northern regions).
Creation of lawns by hydroseeding
This method is used when the lawn is supposed to be laid on poor soil, difficult areas, for landscaping areas of rocky hills and steep slopes of both natural and artificial origin. When hydroseeding, the surface of the site is sprayed with an aqueous mixture consisting of seeds of lawn grasses, mineral fertilizers, peat and film-forming, which ensure the fixation of seeds on the surface of the soil.
When hydroseeding, shrub seeds can be added to the mixture intended for landscaping hills and slopes. Before sowing, the site is mulched; chopped straw, sawdust, peat chips, fertilizers that accelerate the formation of humus are used as mulch. Latexes are used to strengthen sandy soils. The latex film lasts for 25–40 days and protects the seeds, ensuring quick emergence and tillering of cereals. A microclimate with optimal thermal and water conditions is created under the protective layer, which contributes to the rapid germination of seeds and the development of herbage.
Hydroseeding is carried out using special machines and devices. The working mixture is applied twice to achieve a more even distribution over the surface of the site.
If hydroseeding is carried out on a flat area with good soil, the base is prepared in the usual way. Before hydroseeding, the surface is leveled and harrowed to give a roughness that promotes better adhesion of the mixture. Pre-irrigation during hydroseeding is not performed.
During the operation of landscaping objects, it is necessary to competently organize their care, taking into account the purpose of the lawn and its use, the species composition of grasses, the content of substances in the soil root layer, its physical properties.
Lawn care measures should ensure the optimal structure and moisture of the soil, the presence of nutrients necessary for the growth of grasses. These include: irrigation of grass stand, its timely mowing, fertilization, weed control, mechanical treatment of sod, grounding, protection from pests and diseases, maintenance and overhaul.
Watering — one of the most important lawn care measures. The vital activity of the herbaceous cover is supported by an optimal water regime both in the soil and inside the plant itself. The water regime has a direct impact on plant nutrition, the intensity of their vegetative renewal, and on the general condition of the entire plant community.
The grass stand is provided with the necessary moisture reserve for its regrowth and maintenance of its decorative effect. The optimum soil moisture should be 70–75% of the total field moisture capacity of a given soil; therefore, watering or irrigation of the lawn is recommended to be carried out before the soil is moistened to a depth of the root layer (15–20 cm).
Surface irrigation is ineffective. The irrigation rate depends on the soil and climatic conditions of the area, weather factors and the biology of grass development. On heavy and medium loams in the forest zone, the lawn irrigation rate is 15–20 l / m 2; in the steppe zone - 20–30; on light loams and sandy loams - 10–15 and 15–20 l / m 2, respectively. The need for watering is determined by a cut piece of sod 10 cm thick: if the upper part of the sod is 1/3 dry, then the area of the lawn requires watering.
Watering the lawn is carried out using sprinklers over large areas and using hoses with spray nozzles connected to the water supply network in small areas.
Water the lawns immediately after mowing the grass stand. The total number of waterings per season can range from 5 to 20 or more, depending on the soil and weather conditions. On sandy soils, watering is carried out more often, on clay soils - less often, after 10-12 days.
Mowing grass - a measure necessary to activate the sod-forming process and tillering of grasses, to increase the stability of the lawn and its decorative effect. The grass must be mowed systematically (Table 2).
table 2 Lawn mowing time
Parterre and ordinary lawns must be mowed at a height of 3-4 cm for small-stemmed grasses and at a height of 4-5 cm for large-stemmed ones. The young lawn is mowed when the shoots reach a height of 15–20 cm.
The frequency of mowing of parterre and ordinary lawns - once a decade, meadow lawns - much less often with a cut height of 5–6 cm. On average, the grass stand is cut 20–30 times per season on a parterre lawn and 5–10 times on an ordinary lawn. Meadow lawns are mowed after the first flowering of meadow grasses. The last time in the season, lawns are mowed about 25-30 days before the onset of frost, so that the grass has time to get stronger and accumulate enough nutrients. The cut grass is removed so that the sod does not ripen under the rollers left after mowing.
Small areas are mowed with hand mowers with a working width of 30 cm, and lawns among plantings of trees, shrubs, flower beds - with motorized mowers with manual control.
On large parterre areas of the lawn, self-propelled mowers with a working width of up to 80 cm are used, and sports lawns are mowed with the help of special self-propelled lawn mowers, the working width of which is 100-120 cm.
Lawns are mowed in parallel strips.With each subsequent cut, the direction of the stripes must be different.
To reduce the number of lawn mows, chemicals are used - growth inhibitors, for example, MMC (maleic acid hydrazide), as well as other special drugs.
4–5 days after mowing, the surface of the lawn is sprayed with 0.1–0.3% inhibitor solutions. The grass becomes thicker due to the growth of lateral shoots. The use of growth inhibitors is effective on special lawns, on slopes, embankments, slopes.
The edges of the path edges must be trimmed to prevent overgrowth. The sod is trimmed from below, turned away and removed from the site.
Fertilization. The lawn needs constant feeding. Fertilizers in dry form are scattered over the lawn area; seeders can be used for these purposes on large areas.
Fertilizing in liquid form is more laborious. The solutions are prepared in advance and poured into the tanks of sprayers or watering machines.
In the first year, cereals need nitrogen and phosphorus. A special need for nitrogen occurs in spring, when the soil is not yet warmed up. After mowing the grass stand, the need for all nutrients increases sharply. Nitrogen is needed for growth, potassium - for the formation of new shoots and tillering. At the end of the growing season, the need for phosphorus and potassium increases - elements that contribute to an increase in frost resistance. From organic fertilizers, composts and humus are used, evenly distributing them over the surface of the lawn. Top dressing is carried out observing the optimal ratio between nutrients (Table 3).
Table 3. Rates and terms of applying mineral fertilizers when feeding lawns
Flower gardens of various shapes are created according to the principle of landscape or regular composition. The more interesting the landscape, the more varied and original flower beds can be.
Landscape flower beds — groups, arrays, mixborders, single plantings, as well as flowering lawns, usually created from perennial plants of various shapes and sizes.
Flower beds of regular composition - these are parterres, flower beds, rabatki, flower groupings, stripes, borders, vases and flower beds made of various materials (concrete, ceramics, wood, etc.) (Fig. 13).
Fig. 13. Stationary flower girl
Arrays - large-scale plant compositions in which the main effect is achieved by color. Arrays are created from perennials.
Arrays of peonies, tulips, daffodils, chrysanthemums, phloxes, etc. look good.
No less impressive are arrays of plants of two colors, which can be decorated in harmonious or contrasting combinations, for example, white and purple lilies, white daffodils and red tulips, tulips of two contrasting colors.
In terms of size, the arrays are composed of both the same height and uneven-tall plants. Medium-sized ones with a slight difference in height give the effect of volume. The best for massifs are perennials that are well leafy and retain their decorative effect during the entire vegetative period.
Plants that give secondary flowering (lupine, poppy, delphinium) are effective for planting.
Groups — the most common and quite showy type of flower arrangement that looks both well-groomed and natural, especially when the group is located on a green lawn. The area of the groups can be very different, as well as their configuration. Groups can consist of perennials, sometimes in combination with biennials or annuals, which bloom after faded bulbous perennials (tulips, crocuses, daffodils). Groups of large plants of the same species look good, for example, from astilbe, lupine, lilies. Plants of contrasting forms are also used: hosts and lilies.
Groups are placed closer to the viewer than an array. Distinguish between simple and complex groups. Simple groups are created from plants of the same species and are selected in such a way that the plants that make up them bloom at different times of the season.
Complex groups consist of several species of both perennial and annual plants. In this case, the main focus is on the placement of plants in height. The location of uneven plants depends on how the group itself is located. If it is visible from all sides, then tall plants are planted in the center, and low ones - at the edges. If the group is adjacent to a wall or fence, tall plants are placed in the background, and low ones - in the foreground. Groups look best when they are not connected by a clear geometric shape.
Mixborders - decorative borders, the characteristic difference of which is the variety of flower cultures. Due to the fact that different plants bloom at a certain period, the mixborder changes all the time without losing its decorative effect.
The mixborder is placed near the tracks along an elongated line. The plant compositions are repeated at regular intervals. Groups can be of various shapes, both geometric and more complex.
As additional elements, stones, pebbles, gravel, river sand are introduced into the mixborder, interrupted by paths and steps.
In stepped mixborders, plants are selected by height: tall - in the background, medium-sized - in the middle, low - in the foreground.
Flowering shrubs, delphiniums, lilies, and mallow are used in the background. In the middle ground there are plants of medium height: tulips, daffodils, chrysanthemums, irises, perennial daisies. In the foreground is the place of the smallest and most ground cover plants. A mixborder can consist of both unisex and perennial plants. In order for the mixborder not to look too variegated, the main plant is selected, which will set the tone during flowering. If you think carefully about the change of the main plants, then you can achieve the fact that the mixborder will constantly have an elegant and expressive look.
To create a mixborder, conifers and other low-growing shrubs are used. The bush becomes the center of the group and a composition of plants of different sizes is formed around it.
Parterres — a special type of flower beds, which are arranged in the most prominent places in front of the house, in the center of landscape compositions (Fig. 14).
Fig. fourteen. Parterre composition in front of the house
Parterres are created from the most beautifully flowering perennials, biennials or annuals of different species. To create parterres, you can use a wide variety of combinations of plants or several varieties of the same species. Groups of plants are united by paths, decorated with decorative vases, sculptures. You can arrange a parterre at the fountain. The contours of flower groupings are bordered by a low border or strip of ground cover plants.
Flower beds - the most common type of regular flower beds. The shape of the flower beds can be arbitrary, the main thing is the presence of a certain composition. Place flower beds in prominent places.
Flower bed decoration can be seasonal. For example, biennials (daisies, crocuses, viola) bloom early in the spring. In summer, seedlings of summer plants, deciduous-flowering, carpet forms in various combinations are planted.
It is possible to design different shapes of flower beds. Paintings, portraits, sundials, various flower ornaments are laborious to perform and look good only in large flower beds.
One of the complex forms is the creation of volumetric compositions (vases, sculptures, animals) from carpet herbaceous plants on a frame.
Rabatki - these are strips of plants from 0.5 to 3 m wide, which are placed along paths, paths and along the edge of the lawn. The stripes are arranged by planting one or more plant species, mainly annuals.
Curbs — narrow strips of low and cover plants 0.1–0.5 m wide, used to border the edges of flower beds, ridges, aisles. Created by dense planting of annual or perennial flowering plants.
Floral and decorative landscape compositions — alpine slides, rocky gardens - alpinetums and rockeries (Fig. 15.16). They are created in difficult areas, hills and slopes. Places that are not suitable for a vegetable garden and garden are ideal for such compositions. Dwarf and creeping plants are used, which go well with stone. Species suitable for rocky areas: verbena, yaskolka, iberis, alpine aster, sedums, veronica, alissum, cinquefoil, primrose, scilla, viola, arabis, periwinkle, ground cover plants, mosses, lichens, creeping herbaceous plants and shrubs. You can use low bulbous (crocuses, hyacinths).
Fig. fifteen. Alpine slide
Fig. sixteen. Rocky slide with a waterfall
Light-loving plants are more suitable for sunny slopes and the design of peaks, and shade-loving and moisture-loving plants are more suitable for the eastern and northern slopes. When arranging rockeries, stones are best laid asymmetrically and naturally. The stone must be taken from the same formation - a mound or a hill. Plants take root more easily on established rock formations that have already been exposed to the wind, overgrown with moss and lichens. The main requirement for the material used is homogeneity, strength and chemical inertness.
Calcareous rocks (dolomite, travertine, layered limestone) are suitable for rockeries. Limestones are warm, water and air permeable stones. Plants develop better near them. Porous tuffs are indispensable for planting in stone, into the pores of which plant roots can easily penetrate.
A good building material is sandstones, which are dominated by quartz. These are porous, breathable rocks. Their only drawback is fragility. The most valuable are sandstones that contain lime - they are strong and favorable for plants.
Granite boulders are rarely used as a decorative inclusion, because the soil next to them quickly acidifies.
Volcanic rocks (basalt, diabase, gabbro, volcanic tuff) are used to create terraces and strengthen slopes.
With the help of rubble and gravel, drainage can be arranged. Mix dolomite and lime-containing gravel well into the soil for alkalization. Plants that love acidic soil are more suitable for peat. Pine needles improve the growth and development of heather plants.
The stones are embedded in the previously prepared soil tightly, about 2/3 of the height, so that it naturally comes to the surface.
In waterproof areas, drainage is arranged from sand or gravel with a layer of 15–20 cm. A layer of loose earth is poured onto the drainage and stones are laid. Plants are planted between the stones.
Vertical gardening also belongs to decorative devices made of woody and herbaceous plants. Climbing plants are used to decorate the facades of buildings, fences and other objects and are placed on special supports - walls, fences, trellises. With the help of these plants, a solid green mass is created, which gives a dense shade. Plants with aerial roots do not require supports (ivy, five-leaf grapes). They are used for landscaping unplastered walls.
Plants clinging to the support with leaf stalks or leaves are placed against smooth walls equipped with supports.
Plants that cover the supports with stems and twine them upward in a spiral (lemon, kirkazon, morning glory) should rest on thin strips so that they do not slide down. On trellises and screens, thick wire is used for them.
When decorating walls and fences, it should be borne in mind that climbing plants quickly spread along the facade and close the windows, so the plants are cut off. When designing pergolas, it is necessary to monitor the growth of plants and not let them spread excessively. In addition, pruning causes the plants to branch and makes the vertical carpet thick and even throughout the entire height.
1. What is a lawn
First, let's figure out what can be considered a lawn and what is not. It would seem such a simple question, but there are several very important nuances here. The word "lawn" itself comes from French gazon, and translates as "turf" or "grass". If you look in the reference literature, you can find several definitions:
1. A plot of land with artificially created grass cover. (BES. New Encyclopedic Dictionary. M .: Scientific Publishing House "Big Russian Encyclopedia", 2008, S. 227).
2. The grass cover created by sowing seeds of specially selected grasses, which is a background for planting and park structures and an independent element of landscape composition (GOST 28329-89) (Explanatory dictionary of housing and communal services / Edited by K. G. Tsitsin. - Moscow: State Corporation - Fund for Assistance to Reform of Housing and Utilities Sector, 2012, p. 62).
3. Herbaceous phytocenosis, that is, a community of herbaceous species growing in a homogeneous area and forming an artificial turf cover, which is created by sowing (planting) and growing turf-forming grasses for decorative, sports, soil protection or other purposes (Laptev AA Lawns. Kiev: Naukova Dumka, 1983.176 p.).
Of all these definitions, three main factors can be distinguished: "herbaceous plants", "artificially created", "for specific tasks."
Many publications also often note that the main criterion for a lawn is a developed turf, which allows the lawn to be exploited, thanks to which the lawn can withstand the loads, so that you can walk and run on it. For the appearance of such sod, the mowing factor is also important.
Origin of lawns
The time of origin of lawns is tied to the time of origin of the first gardens. The first mentions of ornamental meadows or lawns are found in the description of the gardens of the ancient Persians, Romans and Greeks. However, detailed descriptions of the creation and maintenance of lawns did not appear until the 15th century. You can find the stitching method in them. Sod cut from the meadow was laid on the leveled soil.
The first mention of the classic, short-cut lawn can be found in the treatise "New Organon" by Francis Bacon, written in 1610. It was, of course, England.
The next step in the development of lawnmaking was taken in 1827 with the invention of the lawn mower by Edwin Budding. Thus, the cost of lawn maintenance has decreased, and its popularity has increased again.
The development of special grass for the lawn was started rather late. The first experiments were carried out in 1885 in the USA. American scientists have proven that the most suitable grasses for the lawn are fescue and bent grass. Interest in the study of lawn grasses has spurred the growing popularity of golf in the United States.
However, the most important lawn crop comes from Russia!
The founder of the Russian lawn industry, Richard Ivanovich Schroeder, in his 1883 work "Sod formation in gardens and parks" noted that it is meadow bluegrass (one of the most widespread grasses in Russia) that has exceptional properties for creating an ideal lawn. This has been adopted by American and Canadian lawn growers, and at the moment meadow bluegrass is one of the most popular lawn grasses in Europe and America.
What types of lawns are there?
There are many criteria for classifying a lawn. The first and, rather, the main criterion is lawn specialization. It is divided into sports, decorative and special purpose lawns.
Sports lawns are used on football fields, tennis courts, golf courses and other games, hippodromes, lawns for mass games. The main criterion for sports turf is trampling resistance. There are many technologies for creating this type of lawn, and for each of the areas, be it a football field or a golf course, the technologies differ significantly.Only on the golf course, three types of lawns are used with their own peculiarities of creating and caring for it: green (the area near the hole with the shortest cut grass, usually up to 1 centimeter high), fairway (the main area with an average grass height) and rough (borders the fairway and green, the grass is left high).
When creating professional football fields, up to 6 layers can be used, in addition to drainage and an automatic irrigation system. It must meet the requirements of the plants, the applied load and the maintainability of the sod layer.
Decorative lawns are subdivided into garden and park, parterre, meadow and Moorish.
Parterre lawns are the smoothest, most beautiful, most decorative. These are foreground lawns, occupy the main part of the site, serve as the basis for the arrangement of parterres (meaning the foreground of the site in front of the house, which can be observed by entering the territory). The most demanding lawns, but with proper care they will always delight with their green texture.
Garden and park (city) lawns - lawns, which account for most of the grass turf in parks, squares, boulevards, neighborhood and intra-quarter green spaces, central parts of forest parks. This type of lawn should cover all areas of open soil in the city. And we very much hope that someday this will happen in Russian cities.
Meadow lawns occupy large areas of forest parks, meadows, as well as glades in large parks. Created by improving existing herbage. Usually, they are given the least care; they cut their hair once a year at best. As they say, more meadow than lawn. However, it was from such meadows that all lawn growing began.
Moorish lawns are created from a mixture of some annual and perennial lawn grasses with flowering plants (poppy, nasturtium, purslane, alissum, gypsophila). In my opinion, the most beautiful Moorish lawn is obtained with over-sowing of white daisies. During their flowering, clouds of small white flowers begin to appear on an even green field. A very beautiful picture. It can be watched over the main building of the Timiryazev Academy (glory to the Timiryazev lawn growers).
Lawns for special purposes are intended for recultivation of disturbed lands or destroyed landscapes, anchoring railway and highways, waste heaps and other slopes.
If there is a problem with soil fertility on the site, you can just start with this type of lawn. Crops such as clover, mustard, vetch can be used to restore disturbed lands. In the literature, you can find the horned plant. Personally, I have not used this plant. You can share your experience by writing to me at [email protected]
To fix the slopes of roads and slopes, the following types of grasses are used: creeping wheatgrass, timothy grass, awnless rump, meadow fescue. They differ from ordinary lawn grasses by the most developed root system that penetrates deeply into the soil. However, they are less tolerant of low mowing than grasses such as meadow bluegrass and red fescue.