With the help of grafting fruit trees, the possibilities of the garden are significantly expanded, even in a small area. After all, one tree is capable of enduring several different varieties. And grafting becomes almost the last opportunity to save a tree with healthy roots, but a weak or diseased crown. In the end, it is a great moral satisfaction to see and understand that you can work a miracle with your own hands.
Common and unusual times for pear grafting
The pear is grafted throughout the growing season. If something does not grow together for novice gardeners in the spring, you can try your luck in the summer. And for the correction of summer flaws, there is an early fall. There are even winter vaccinations that have certain specifics.
When to start grafting pears in spring
Spring grafting is supposed to be carried out in March-April, but whether it will be in early March, at the turn of months or later, depends on the climate in the region. For an attentive gardener, nature itself provides the answer to the question of when to start vaccinations. Take a closer look, if the ground has thawed two shovels in depth or the buds are swollen, it's time to get down to work. If it suddenly freezes, the vaccinations will be able to withstand a short-term non-critical drop in temperature. But being late is much worse, especially in areas with a short summer, because the non-accrete cambial layers of the scion and rootstock are vulnerable to autumn frosts.
The pear belongs to stone fruit plants, which do not tend to cry, that is, to leak gum when cuts in the bark or pruning shoots. Gum is a sticky sap that comes out like amber drops from wounds.
Stone fruits suffer from gum flow, pears have no such problems
Since the pear is devoid of this feature, it is grafted during the period of sap flow. As soon as a stable temperature of + 10 ° C is established during the day and 0 ... +2 ° C and higher at night, the kidneys will swell and turn light brown, which means it's time to prepare the instruments and grafting material. It is difficult to say with certainty in what month the tree will be ready for grafting. In the southern regions this happens at the beginning of March, and in Siberia - at the end of April, and it does not occur year after year.
The start of work can also be determined by the state of the bark... In the spring, the cambial layer (it is he who is responsible for the accretion and engraftment of the scion) begins to grow, acquires a rich green color, becomes juicy. Thanks to this, the bark with the cambial layer is easily separated from the trunk, which is necessary for budding or grafting behind the bark. The test for bark separation is carried out with the tip of a knife literally a couple of millimeters, dipping it into the bark and slightly picking it up. If she falls behind easily, then the vaccination time has come. After testing, the wound is covered with garden varnish.
The cambial layer is very thin, but it depends on it whether the scion will take root
In our area, in the Donbass, the season of grafting pome plants is about to open. Opening the refrigerator, I look longingly at the cuttings - they seem to be asleep. I harvested them in March, from the neighbors a fat branch was cut down from the southern side of the crown (what can you do, the Internet is a priority). And although at that time the frost had passed, the atmosphere was damp, penetrating to the bones. It was these bad factors that allowed me to prepare cuttings on an impromptu basis. Since April 8, the sun has gone out in full swing, the buds on the trees seem to crackle, so the leaves burst them from the inside. The daytime temperature fluctuates between 12-15 ° C, the nighttime temperature has risen to +6, which means I will be vaccinating soon. Once I already tried to carry out the summer budding of an apple tree, but I did not take into account the main negative factor - the heat. And it becomes more aggressive from year to year, in the sun it is more than 45 ° C. Therefore, I decided to acquire a second experience in the spring, our April often turns out to be the most affectionate month.
Swollen and expanding kidneys indicate that the time for vaccinations has come.
Start of pear vaccinations by region:
- Middle lane, Moscow region - 2-3 decades of April;
- Northwest region - at the end of April;
- Ural, Siberia - end of April - second decade of May;
- Ukraine - mid-March - early April;
- South of Russia - February-March.
Features of vaccinations in the northern regions
Due to the peculiar climatic conditions, the Ural gardeners have a specific vaccination schedule. Here mature eyes begin to appear already at the beginning of June, by the end of the month there are already 3-4 of them on the shoot, in August - 10-15 pieces. In a difficult climate, it is not necessary to wait for the ripening of the one-year shoot and, therefore, for all the eyes to ripen. Added to this is the fact that sap flow almost does not stop here and does not have a pronounced first and second waves. Therefore, budding in the Urals smoothly flows from spring to summer. Thus, the pear can be grafted from the end of April to 5–20 August. The last vaccinations are carried out 15–20 days before the average temperature drops to + 15 ° C.
Pros and cons of spring grafting
On the bright side, the tree actively starts growing after hibernation, its regenerative abilities are high and the cambium grows together quickly. The result is visible in 2-3 months, and if you fail, you can make a second attempt in the summer.
The picture is darkened by not very comfortable working conditions - the wind, the tangible coolness. It is also unclear how well the stock overwintered, and mud and puddles make it difficult to get to the site.
Vaccination in summer
If the spring dates are missed or something did not grow together, for example, the bark did not separate or the sections were made clumsily, the pear is grafted in the summer. At this time, the second wave of sap flow begins, i.e. the same internal processes occur as in spring. And the readiness of the bark is checked similarly to the spring testing. The bark becomes elastic from about the middle of July, at the same time they begin to inoculate the pear. Depending on weather conditions, work can be carried out until early September. The specifics of the summer vaccination are determined by the heat and irregular rains, therefore, the dry air, therefore it is better to work in the morning or in the evening. The transplanted kidneys are covered with cellophane and shaded with foil... If the need for grafting with a cuttings is ripe, which does not happen often, they do it from about July 1 to August 10.
The grafted kidney is wrapped in cellophane so that it does not dry out from the summer heat
Terms of vaccinations:
- Middle lane, Moscow region - end of July - first decade of August;
- North-West - end of July - beginning of August;
- Non-Black Earth Region - second half of July-15 August;
- Ural, Siberia - in the first week of August;
- Ukraine - from the second decade of July and throughout the month;
- Southern regions - August.
Advantages and disadvantages
The advantages include the fact that you do not have to bother with harvesting and storing cuttings, saving time lost in spring. It is possible to visually determine whether the stock is healthy, and the results of the vaccination will be known in the current season. The procedure can be carried out several times.
The main disadvantage is hot weather, when it is difficult to catch a gray day, vaccinations require protection from overheating and drying out.
Vaccinations at this time of the year are not widely practiced due to the inconstancy of autumn weather - more capricious than spring. Little time is allotted for autumn vaccinations - the beginning of September is plus or minus a week and the results are comparatively worse than in summer or autumn.
The timing of the start of vaccinations:
- Middle lane, Moscow region - the first 2 weeks of September;
- Northwest region - last 3 weeks of September;
- Ukraine, southern regions - to be completed by early October.
Advantages and disadvantages of autumn vaccinations
Autumn is the third attempt in a failed spring and summer vaccination campaign, therefore, a year can be saved; the cuttings that have taken root for the next season will be hardened.
It is inconvenient to wait for a long time until spring, when the final results of the vaccination will be known. Wounds on the rootstock heal more slowly because sap flow slows down; in winter, the junction is prone to frostbite. The survival rate is low.
Vaccination in winter
Winter grafting is carried out from December to March using frost-hardened cuttings and dug out annual rootstockand. The method of improved copulation is used. The advantages of winter vaccinations are undeniable:
- There is no need to rush, because the rootstock and the scion are dormant;
- Depending on the nuances of storage, accretion occurs either already in the storage, or in the spring on the site;
- High survival rate.
For winter grafting, the rootstock and scion are harvested in advance and stored indoors until spring.
How to harvest pear cuttings
At first glance, the preparation of the future scion is simple: I cut the branches I liked and ... This is where the first question arises - are any branches suitable for grafting or should they still be special?
How to select a stalk for grafting
Cuttings are annual twigs cut from a tree with pruners or, as it is scientifically called, annual growths. Such shoots are determined visually: these are the tops of branches or lateral branches that grew and lengthened during the season. The bark on them is smooth and even, with a glossy, saturated color. The point on the shoot, from where the one-year growth begins, is indicated by a knot or thickening with transverse inundation rings - a kidney ring. Such a one-year growth is cut, leaving a fragment of a young branch with two buds on the tree. Some cut the shoot below the bud knot in order to preserve young annual wood.
The kidney ring is formed at the junction of the wood of the last year and the current
When to procure grafting material
The time and type of vaccination depends on the time when you should stock up on grafting material - cuttings or kidneys.
- In the fall - after the fall of leaves, when a wave of cold weather from -10 ° C to 16 ° C has already passed, cuttings are cut. They are already sufficiently hardened and disinfected by frost. A huge plus in autumn harvesting is that young shoots will not freeze, if an abnormal frost occurs or in early spring, when it is still cold.
- If the winter is mild and the temperature does not drop below -20 ° C, it makes no difference when to cut the cuttings - in December or February.
- At the junction of winter and spring, it also turns out to prepare good cuttings. The bonus is that it doesn't have to be stored for long.
- Summer grafting is done immediately, so the cuttings or buds are cut off just before grafting so that the cuttings do not dry out. In this case, the account goes not even for hours, but for minutes. Let's just say that summer cuttings should be lignified at the bottom. It is difficult to find such in June, but in July and they are almost all ready for pruning.
Not every gardener has enough free time to visit the garden frequently. A working person only has time to work with trees, that on weekends. For those who like to organize their work, focusing on signs or good days, do not forget to look into the lunar calendar. Who knows, maybe the Moon really affects the survival rate of vaccinations?
Video: harvesting cuttings for grafting
The generally accepted terms of vaccination are adjusted depending on local climatic conditions. The quality of cuttings depends on their timely harvesting and storage conditions.
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I would like the garden to have many different varieties of fruit crops, with different ripening periods, high productivity, frost resistance and unpretentiousness. Here is a gardener and experiments, making grafts on trees. It's always interesting what happens. If you plant cherries on cherries, or cherries on apricots, plums, cherry plums. Experienced gardeners have long been convinced that:
- Plum, cherry plum, bird cherry are considered a good stock for cherries.
- A good result is obtained if the stock is cherries or thorns.
- Apple, pear, sea buckthorn, mountain ash are not at all suitable for cherries as a rootstock.
Also read about grafting currants on cherries in this article.