The shells should not be discarded after cleaning the eggs. For lovers of home plants, owners of summer cottages, they will provide invaluable assistance in carrying out useful dressings that are necessary for many plants. Egg husks are used to make fertilizer that is environmentally friendly and natural. To use it correctly, you should know what its value is, how to prepare such a top dressing, when to use it.
When and why shell fertilizers are used
Eggshells contain more than 90% calcium carbonate. The presence of it and other useful components: copper, iron, zinc, phosphorus ensures rapid germination of seeds, plant formation, strengthening of the root system, improvement of metabolic processes, photosynthesis.
The prepared fertilizer from the shells is used in different cases. These include:
- High acidity of the soil, which adversely affects the yield of the crop. The addition of shells lowers the PH of the medium..
- Insufficient percentage of calcium in plants, this causes loss of color in foliage, death of plant tops, slow development of the root system. The amount of calcium is increased by the introduction of eggshells along with complex fertilizers.
- Improving the quality characteristics of the soil. Such fertilization helps to loosen the soil, increases its aeration, and the access of the required oxygen. Top dressing from egg shells will not allow moisture to stagnate in the ground. With it, nutritional components, trace elements will be better absorbed.
There are no strictly defined periods when plants require such feeding. It is possible to implement them:
- at the time of planting the culture;
- in the fall, in the spring, when they dig up the ground;
- for periodic feeding of plantings.
When seedlings are planted in planting cups, egg shells are laid down, receiving both top dressing and high-quality drainage.
The shell can be used as drainage
Which crops need such feeding and which do not
Husk from eggs can serve as a fertilizer for plants. It is used in its pure form or insisted and made into a liquid fertilizer. It depends on the types of crops. Plants need this feeding:
- Garden ones (use crushed shells or infusion), of which it is especially needed:
- Room (use infusion):
- green perennials,
- flowering annuals,
- Garden (use infusion). Among them, calcium is especially required for stone fruits: cherries, plums. The fertilizer has a beneficial effect on pear, apple, currant, raspberry, gooseberry, citrus and conifers.
Photo gallery: which plants will be happy with shell fertilization
But for some crops, such feeding is harmful.... For the following indoor flowers, fertilization with a high level of calcium can threaten various diseases:
A negative reaction to the addition of shells to the wells is observed in strawberries, spinach, beans, cucumber.
Photo gallery: which plants should not be fed with ground shells
Shell fertilizers: recipes, application schemes
The procedure for preparing fertilizer from shells begins with the preparation of raw materials. The duration of storage of this fertilizer will depend on the correctness of this step.
Fertilizer from crushed egg peels is absorbed faster by the soil. Step-by-step manufacturing process:
- The shells of fresh eggs are freed from the contents, they are well washed from the inside.
- The shells are dried in the sun or in the oven until they become brittle.
- Grind them in a mortar, blender or through a meat grinder.
As a result, a powder is obtained from the shell. In the future, this product is used for top dressing when introduced into dug holes, made grooves, for sprinkling the soil surface near plantings. Liquid fertilizer is also prepared from it.
The powder obtained from the eggshell is used as a fertilizer or an infusion is made from it for plant nutrition
In the shell of boiled eggs there are less valuable substances than in the shell of raw eggs, since during cooking they lose them under the influence of high temperatures.
When the shell is freed from protein residues, does not have a nasty smell, is well dried, it is placed in a cardboard box and stored in dry and cool conditions for up to a year.... Do not put the shells in a plastic bag. Moisture gets inside it, and the powder fouls.
A shell that is rotten cannot be used, otherwise the plants may get sick.
There are many options for using shells among gardeners:
- Large chunks of shells can be added directly to the barrel containing the water that is poured over the ridges. For 2 or 3 days, while the water is in the barrel, it does not have time to rot, but it heats up and absorbs the necessary microelements from the shell of the eggs.
- The shell, divided into small parts, is added when digging the soil to a depth of 10 cm. The consumption rate per square meter is 100 pieces of shells.
- When planting garden plants, place 2 cups of this shell powder per 1 m in the holes 2.
- Reduce soil acidity by mixing 1 part of the shell and 1 part of ash.
- Liming 1 kg of soil will require 2 teaspoons of the mixture.
- For drainage, lay a 2 cm layer of large egg shells on the bottom of the hole.
- When adding shells to the soil when planting (transplanting) home crops, put about 1/3 teaspoon on a flower container.
The shells are also placed on the surface of the ground next to the plantings to prevent slugs.
Shell liquid fertilizer
You can prepare a liquid fertilizer, a universal infusion from the shell, by taking 50 g of shells or powder. Place them in a 3 liter jar, pour a liter of boiling water there. This mixture is infused for about a week. The readiness of the fertilizer is indicated by the turbidity of the solution and the appearance of an unpleasant odor... The working solution used for dressing is obtained by diluting the shell infusion with water in a ratio of 3: 1.
Plants are watered with egg husk infusion at least once every two weeks.
Garden, house plants, fruit trees and shrubs are watered with infusion so that the surface of the earth next to them becomes wet. This procedure is repeated after 1-2 weeks..
The use of eggshells as a fertilizer for cultivated plants allows you to turn the often discarded egg shell into a useful, necessary fertilizer that is easy to prepare at home.
Chicken droppings for feeding tomatoes
Tomatoes can be fed both with purchased ready-made fertilizers based on chemical elements, and with natural fertilizers prepared with your own hands. Fertilizers promote the growth and development of tomato bushes, abundant flowering, fruit setting, and their early ripening, as well as an increase in the amount of harvest. The first time the tomatoes need to be fertilized 2 weeks after planting the seedlings. Subsequent fertilizing with fertilizers is done until mid-July with an interval of 14 days.
Top dressing of tomatoes (tomatoes) with eggshells. Eggshells have also proven to be a good seedling fertilizer. The crushed shell of 3-4 eggs is soaked in 3 liters of warm water, the container is closed with a loose lid and placed in a dark place for about 3 days. When the infusion begins to emit an unpleasant odor (this is a consequence of the decomposition of hydrogen sulfide), the seedlings are watered with it.
Top dressing of tomatoes (tomatoes) with iodine. Iodine accelerates the ripening of fruits, and also prevents the development of a dangerous disease - late blight. For 10 liters of water, you need to dissolve 4 drops of an alcohol solution of iodine. The resulting liquid is poured over tomatoes at the rate of 2 liters for each plant.Feeding tomatoes (tomatoes) with ash. Wood ash is an excellent source of potassium and phosphorus, which means it helps to stimulate flowering and fruiting in tomatoes. 1 glass of wood ash is dissolved in 10 liters of water and the beds with tomatoes are watered with the resulting liquid. You can also use dry ash, which is poured under the plants: 1 tbsp per 1 plant.
Ashes can also be used for foliar feeding. To do this, dissolve 300 grams of ash in 3 liters of water, and boil the solution for 10 minutes. After that, they insist for 5 hours, bring the volume of liquid to 10 liters and add a little laundry soap there so that the liquid dressing is better kept on the leaves. Then the solution is filtered and sprayed with tomato plants.
Feeding tomatoes (tomatoes) with yeast. For feeding tomatoes, you can use both fresh and dry yeast. Yeast does not contain the basic elements of plant nutrition, so the yeast solution is more a growth stimulant than a fertilizer.
Baker's yeast fertilizer can be prepared in three ways:
- One packet of dry instant yeast is mixed with 2 tbsp. sugar and add a little warm water to make the mixture runny. Then the resulting substance is dissolved in 10 l of water and 0.5 l is used for each plant.
- A three-liter jar is filled 2/3 with black bread, warm water with fresh yeast dissolved in it (100 g) is poured to the top and placed in a warm place for 3-5 days. Then the infusion is filtered and diluted with water in a ratio of 1:10. For a young tomato bush, use 0.5 liters of solution, and for an adult - about 2 liters.
- And there is also the simplest recipe for fertilizing from yeast: 100 g of fresh yeast is thoroughly dissolved in 10 liters of water and the resulting liquid is immediately poured over the tomatoes.
Top dressing of tomatoes (tomatoes) with chicken dung. Chicken manure acts on plants as a complex mineral fertilizer: it contains a lot of nitrogen and phosphorus. It is quite effective to use fresh chicken manure diluted with water. To do this, a bucket (10 l) is 1/3 filled with chicken droppings, water is added to the edges of the container, infused in the open air for 7-10 days, after which 0.5 l of the solution is diluted in 10 l of water and the resulting liquid is poured between rows from calculation of 5-6 liters per sq.m.
[attention type = red] Important: Make sure that the solution of chicken manure does not get on the leaves of the tomatoes, as this may cause them burns. [/ attention]
Top dressing of tomatoes (tomatoes) with mullein. This fertilizer is also prepared quite simply: 1/2 bucket of manure is poured with water to the edges of the container, covered with a lid and placed in a warm place for a week. After this time, the infusion is thoroughly stirred and diluted with water in a ratio of 1:10. For each bush, 0.5-1 liters of top dressing is consumed.
Top dressing of tomatoes (tomatoes) with nettles. The infusion is prepared from young nettle leaves: they accumulate a lot of nitrogen, potassium and iron. The container (its size depends on how much fertilizer is needed for your garden) is 2/3 filled with nettles, then water is poured there, but not to the very top, covered with a lid and insisted for 7-10 days in a warm place. After 10 days, the solution is ready. For 1 liter of solution, add 10 liters of water and pour the resulting liquid over the tomatoes at the root at the rate of 1-2 liters per plant. This fertilizer should not be overused. Do no more than 2 nettles per month.
Today in the article:
- When to start feeding tomato seedlings
- Top dressing for tomato seedlings Athlete
- Top dressing for seedlings Krepysh
- Seedling feed Emerald
- Top dressing for seedlings Humate +7
- Top dressing for seedlings Zdraven Turbo
- Top dressing Fertica Lux
- How to feed tomato seedlings with folk remedies
- Feeding seedlings with chicken droppings
- Fertilizing seedlings with vermicompost
- Top dressing of seedlings with onion skins
- Feeding tomato seedlings with ash
- Fertilizing tomato seedlings with iodine
- Fertilizing seedlings with hydrogen peroxide video
Signs of a lack of nutrients in a tomato
Not always weak tomato seedlings are the result of infection or the presence of insect pests. External symptoms may indicate nutritional deficiencies. Knowing these signs, you can help the tomato with the help of timely feeding.
With a lack of nitrogen in tomato bushes, old leaves turn yellow, stems thin and stretch in length, leaf plates are small, their color is not bright green, but pale, almost white. To eliminate nitrogen deficiency, mineral or organic fertilizers containing it are needed.
When tomatoes lack phosphorus, a bluish tint appears on the stems and leaves, if you look at the underside of old leaves, you can clearly see the purple tint. With a phosphorus deficiency, the roots develop poorly, the plant lags behind in growth. The problem is solved with any fertilizer containing phosphorus.
Potassium deficiency symptoms:
- young leaves curl
- old leaves first turn yellow, then dry out
- brown spots appear on the leaves.
The deficiency is replenished with potassium nitrate, the dosage is taken from the instructions for the drug.
With a lack of magnesium, the leaf plates twist upward. If the tomatoes lack zinc, then gray-brown spots appear on the old leaves, the young leaves almost do not increase in size and are covered with yellow dots. Spraying the bushes with magnesium nitrate (5g per 10L) eliminates the problem.
Lack of calcium during fruiting contributes to the appearance of apical rot on the fruits, a border similar to a burn appears on young leaves, and calcium nitrate saves. With a lack of boron:
- color falls
- points of growth die off
- the plant forms many stepsons
- deformation of the tops of the central and lateral shoots occurs.
Iron deficiency begins to manifest itself with a change in the color of the lower leaves. At first they turn pale, then they begin to turn yellow, while the veins remain green.
Iron deficiency leads to a slowdown in the growth of tomato bushes. Eliminate the deficiency with ferrous sulfate.
When growing tomatoes in open ground and in a greenhouse, it is necessary to correctly organize the nutrition of tomatoes, use two types of dressings:
Foliar dressing is carried out by spraying tomato bushes with nutrient solutions. Fertilizers, falling on the leaves, are absorbed faster. It is advisable to carry out foliar feeding in certain cases:
- bad weather
- the plant is weakened
- obvious deficiency of nutrients.
To carry out foliar dressing, it is worth purchasing an industrial sprayer with a volume of about 8-10 liters. Plants are treated in the evening or early morning to avoid sunburn on the leaves.
Important! Do not make mistakes, do not feed tomatoes at the root if the weather is cool for more than 3 days. Nutrients are absorbed when the air and soil temperatures are above 15 ° C.
All summer residents are engaged in root dressing. Tomato bushes are watered with any liquid fertilizer at the root. A prerequisite: the tomatoes must be watered the day before, this will protect the roots from burns.
When to feed tomatoes properly
During the season, 3 root dressings are carried out. The first, very important feeding, is carried out 10-12 days after transplanting tomato seedlings into the ground. There are many fertilizer options. You can use mineral fertilizers. For example, nitrophosphate: 1 tbsp. l per bucket of water, consumption of 1 liter of solution per 1 bush.
With high-quality soil preparation before planting using the entire complex of organic and mineral fertilizers, it is enough to fertilize the seedlings:
- potassium sulfate (1 tbsp. l per 10 l of water)
- potassium magnesium (1 tsp per 10 liters of water).
From organic fertilizers at the first stage of development, herbal infusions or solutions of mullein, or chicken droppings are used.
The second time the tomatoes are to be fed during flowering. Take a mullein solution (10 l), add to it:
- complete mineral fertilizer 1 tbsp. l
- copper sulfate 3 g
- potassium permanganate 3 g.
Consumption of working solution for dwarf tomatoes - 1 liter, for determinant bushes - 1.5 liters, for indeterminate plants - 2 liters.
To make the fruits better tied, root dressings are alternated with foliar. On the bushes, the ovaries are actively formed after spraying the bushes during flowering with a solution of boric acid. For 10 liters of water you need 1 gram of boric acid and magnesium sulfate.
The third feeding during fruiting is carried out with an ash infusion. How to cook it was described above. It is effective to use superphosphate during this period. Prepare the solution according to the instructions on the package.
The table shows cases when foliar feeding is necessary for tomatoes.
(consumption is given for 10 l of water)
By controlling the state of the planted seedlings, applying fertilizers on time, you can grow strong tomato bushes with excellent immunity. Healthy plants always delight with a good harvest, which is distinguished by its presentation, good taste and a long storage period.
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Why feed tomatoes after planting
For the season, we should receive the volume of the crop declared by the manufacturer, and if we are lucky, even more. Without a well-planned feeding scheme, this is unlikely to work. Good results are achieved with the right combination of organic and mineral fertilizers, and the obligatory alternation of root and foliar dressings.
The content of the article
- Why feed tomatoes after planting
- How to feed properly
- Influence of microclimate on nutrient absorption
- What time to feed
- How to feed tomatoes so that they are plump
- Complex fertilizer
- Folk remedies without chemistry
- We use iodine
- How to apply ash
- The benefits of yeast
- Yeast talker is the best plant food: video
- Nettle in the first half of summer
- Green fertilizer from nettle: video
- About chicken droppings
- Top dressing and spraying of tomatoes in the greenhouse: video
The main long-acting mineral fertilizers are applied during the preparation of the soil for planting, the plant will gradually master them as it grows. Usually, the following is added to the soil:
- potassium nitrate
- urea (in spring).
The rate and combination of ingredients depends on the type of soil and its fertility. Higher fertilizer concentration when applied to depleted soil. If the soil fertility in the greenhouse is restored annually, then the fertilizer consumption is standard.
Fertilized soil is good, but 2 weeks after transplanting, the seedlings will need the first feeding. It is necessary for both healthy plants and weakened ones. Signs of a healthy, well-established seedling:
- stem growth by 8-10 cm
- the color of the leaves is bright green
- thick stem.
Such seedlings need a new charge of nutrients for the formation of green mass, the development of the root system, and the formation of buds.
Weakened seedlings with signs of lack of nutrients, overgrown, flowering top dressing after planting in a greenhouse is needed to relieve stress, strengthen immunity, and establish good nutrition.
It is possible that the poor condition of the seedlings after transplantation is caused by a disease. In this case, it is necessary not only to feed, but also to cure the plant with the help of chemical, biological preparations or folk methods.
Influence of microclimate on nutrient absorption
The intensity of the consumption of nutrients from the soil by the seedlings depends on the temperature in the greenhouse. It is important to know at what temperature the root system of tomatoes stops absorbing nutrients from the soil.
Important! To control the temperature regime, the greenhouse must be equipped with thermometers. There must be at least three of them. One should be located near the soil surface, the second - at a height of 1.5 m, the third - under the ceiling.
According to experts, an air temperature of 10 ° C should be considered critical if it is kept in the greenhouse for more than 3 days. Young seedlings stop absorbing the nutrients they need.
The soil temperature in the greenhouse is equally important for the adequate nutrition of young plants. The lower comfort limit is 13 ° C, the upper comfort limit is 25 ° C. It is optimal if there are no sharp drops between day and night temperatures.
What time to feed
The question of when to feed can be understood in two ways. Some ask it, implying at what time of day you need to apply fertilizers, others - the phase of culture development. Both are important. A suitable time of day for work on fertilizing (root, foliar) is considered to be morning or evening, when the sun has not yet set, but already tends to set.
After feeding, the greenhouse should stand open until sunset so that condensation does not form on the leaves, the air humidity in the root zone remains within the required range (75-80%). In cloudy weather, foliar dressing can be carried out at any time.
The main phases of development, when tomatoes in the greenhouse need additional feeding:
- the first root - after transplantation, when the seedlings have taken root and started growing
- the second - at the root exactly two weeks after the first
- third root - a week after the second
- the final one - during the period of active fruit formation.
The application of fertilizers in liquid form under the root must be combined with spraying the bushes with various mixtures. Foliar dressings are especially effective during the flowering period, they improve the process of pollination and the formation of ovaries.
In August, sharp daily temperature fluctuations begin. They contribute to the intensive reproduction of fungi, tomatoes at this time are especially susceptible to fungal diseases. Foliar dressing helps to strengthen the immune system; for prevention, they must be carried out at least 2-3 times a month.
How to feed tomatoes so that they are plump
The stronger the tomato bush, the more likely it is to get a good harvest. In order for the tomato shoots to be thick, you need to properly organize food. Experienced vegetable growers prefer to alternate natural (organic) feeding with the introduction of special chemical preparations containing a certain set of macro- and microelements.
The first time to introduce complex mineral fertilizers into the soil of the greenhouse is necessary at the stage of its preparation for planting seedlings. You can add fertilizer Master NPK-17.6.8 to the well. This preparation contains the correct proportions of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium, which perform the main functions in the period after transplanting seedlings into the ground:
- restore the necessary balance of nutrients in the soil
- increase stress resistance of tomatoes
- promote root development
- stimulate the growth of shoots and leaves.
Important! Fertilizer Master can be used throughout the growing season of tomatoes.
Fertilizer consumption Master per 1 sq. m is 100-150 g, the amount depends on the fertility and composition of the soil.
Kristalon from planting to harvest
Under the name Kristalon, water-soluble complex mineral fertilizers are produced for various vegetables, including tomatoes. When preparing the soil for planting, special Kristalon is used. It has an equal mix of NPK - 18:18:18.
During flowering, the formation of ovaries and fruiting, Kristalon is used universal. These complex fertilizers contain all the nutrients necessary for tomatoes and perfectly replace classical fertilizers: manure, urea, both during soil preparation and in subsequent phases of development.
The best fertilizer - Kemira Lux
An easy-to-use complex fertilizer is used by many tomato lovers. The solution is easy to prepare. In a bucket of water, you need to dissolve 1 tbsp. l of powder. Top dressing with this fertilizer can be combined with weekly watering of tomatoes in the greenhouse. The composition contains everything that is needed for the normal growth and fruiting of a tomato.
|Chemical element||Content (%)|
How to feed tomatoes with yeast
The product can be used fresh or dry.
Gardeners prepare yeast feed in two ways. Let's consider each of them in detail.
- Buy a bag of baked dry yeast from the grocery store. Pour them into a container, combine them with 50 g of sugar and a little warm water. Dissolve the mixture in one bucket of water. One bush will take 0.5 liters of liquid.
- Place 300 g of black bread in a three-liter jar. Heat water, dissolve 100 g of fresh yeast in it. Pour the resulting liquid over the bread. Insist 3-5 days. Use gauze to filter the infusion.
Dilute it with water in a 1:10 ratio. If you are going to nourish a young tomato bush, you will need 0.5 liters of liquid, for an adult plant, quadruple this amount.
If there is no time to prepare infusions, you can dilute 100 g of yeast in 10 liters of water and water the bushes with the solution immediately after preparation. Yeast does not contain the elements that plants need. The yeast-based composition acts as a growth stimulant.
Read also: Review of new products: varieties and hybrids of tomatoes of the season 2019
Step-by-step feeding of tomatoes in the greenhouse with organic and complex fertilizers
Tomatoes are a very picky vegetable crop, especially when grown indoors. In this case, for full-fledged care of them, it is imperative to feed tomatoes in the greenhouse with mineral fertilizers. And here they will be needed both organic and complex. So that you do everything right, in this article we will answer such questions - what exactly tomatoes need, how to use it all correctly and what should be taken into account.
In order for tomatoes to bear fruit well, they must be fed with various macro- and microelements. The most important here are nitrogen, potassium and phosphorus. With a lack of the first, the development of the vegetative system slows down or stops altogether, the yield decreases, the leaves turn yellow and the roots weaken.
If the plant does not have enough phosphorus fertilizers, then it does not tolerate cold well and does not resist various pests. This is especially noticeable during the period of growing seedlings.
Potassium deficiency also plays an important role, which occurs mainly during fruiting. Tomatoes need this element much less than others. It is necessary to improve the palatability, strengthen the root system and stems, and accelerate the formation of ovaries and leaves. Magnesium and zinc regulate photosynthesis, the process of chlorophyll formation, and molybdenum and calcium determine whether the leaves will curl and wrinkle.
Potassium deficiency in tomatoes is clearly visible on the leaves
You also need to feed tomatoes in the greenhouse with preparations with sulfur, iron and manganese, with insufficient supply of which the stems become thin and fragile, the leaves become stiff, begin to wither and dry. Very often you can find bright yellow streaks on the tops, which are somewhat reminiscent of a viral mosaic.
In greenhouses, the demand for chlorine and calcium in tomatoes doubles. These micro and macro elements are intensively absorbed by the plant in low light and high humidity. In the case of their deficiency, the leaves are characterized by a mosaic yellow-green color and the top of the plant bends unnaturally, which may indicate the development of late blight.
Table of sources of micro- and macroelements
|Potassium||Potassium chloride, potassium sulfate, potassium salt|
|Phosphorus||Double superphosphate, superphosphate|
|Nitrogen||Ammonia water, ammonium sulfate, urea, ammonium nitrate|
|Calcium, zinc, sulfur, magnesium||Dolomite flour, oven ash, eggshells, zinc sulfate|
All offered fertilizers can be used both individually and in combination with each other. For convenience, ready-made inorganic compositions are sold - "Master", "Nitroammofoska", "Ammophos", "Zeovit", "Valagro Benefit", "Kelik Potassium" and many others. dr.
It is necessary to divide the work into 4 stages:
- Before planting in the soil, it is abundantly watered and fertilized with a mixture of ash and manure. Then, when the earth dries up, it is well dug up. A week later, the first feeding of tomatoes is carried out after planting in the greenhouse under the roots. At this time, urea and ammonium nitrate can be used. Dissolve 2 tsp in a bucket of water. each component.
Ammonium nitrate is an indispensable component of foliar and root dressings
- Fertilizers are applied for the second time 2 weeks after the first feeding. Potassium sulfate diluted in 10 liters of water will be useful here. After another 5 days, the following composition should be poured under the roots:
- 15 liters of cooled boiling water
- 2 tbsp. l. superphosphate
- 2 tbsp. l. wood ash.
- After the beginning of flowering, it is recommended to spray the bushes with such a solution:
- 10 l of water
- 2 tsp sodium humate powder
- 2 tbsp. l. nitrophosphate.
For 1 sq. m you will need about 5 liters of the composition. Then a break is taken until the time when the first fruits appear. At this point, you should use "green" organic matter - herbal infusion. For its preparation, vagrant comfrey, buttercup, dandelion or any other plants with a total weight of 1 kg, pour boiling water and let them stand for 2-3 days. Stir the mixture every day, and when it ferments, strain it and pour the solution over the wells.
Herbal dressing for tomatoes - green organic
- After the beginning of fruiting, the application of mineral fertilizers under the roots remains relevant. You can see what exactly fits here in the table just above. To strengthen the plant and increase its resistance to diseases 2-3 times a month, it is useful to use iodine (40 drops) in combination with 1 liter of serum and 1 tsp. hydrogen peroxide. The bushes are sprayed with this composition.
For watering the soil during the growing season, ready-made preparations help well. One of these is "Fitosporin-M", intended for soil disinfection. Such feeding of tomatoes in a greenhouse made of polycarbonate and other materials prevents the development of powdery mildew, root rot, black leg and other diseases. For this purpose, 3 tsp is diluted in 10 liters of water. powder, the resulting volume is enough to process an area of 50 sq. m.
In case of boron deficiency at any stage, spray the bushes with water (10 l), in which 2 g of boric acid is diluted. With the same composition, you can wipe the leaves and water the soil, before that it is heated in the sun. For additional nutrition and protection against late blight, iodine is suitable, 10 drops of which are added to 10 liters of water.
Iodine is an excellent remedy for protecting tomatoes from late blight
Iodine can also be used in the following way - hanging bubbles with it over the plants - the vapors of this drug destroy microbes in the greenhouse. In order not to suffer ourselves, you cannot stay in this room for more than an hour at a time.
During flowering, it is useful to spray the bushes with an infusion of wood ash, it (250 g) is poured with hot water (3 l) and left for a day. The next day, the precipitate is filtered off, and the resulting solution is diluted with water (1: 1). Enough 1-2 such procedures before the start of fruiting.
For leaf feeding, a solution of:
- boric acid (5 g),
- zinc sulfate (3 g),
- copper sulfate (2 g).
It is used to wipe the leaves with a cotton pad. It is quite possible to spray the bushes with the same composition. The number of such procedures should not exceed 1 time per month.
For the active development of shoots and leaves, it is necessary to feed the tomatoes in the greenhouse with urea, but it is possible only at the flowering stage. The bushes are treated with a 0.5% solution (50 g of fertilizer per 10 l of water). This volume is enough for spraying 100 sq. m of plantings of tomatoes.
With a lack of calcium, calcium nitrate is useful, 7 g of which is diluted in 10 liters of water.The finished fertilizer can be used to wipe the leaves or sprinkle the tops until the fruit appears, about 1 liter is required per bush. Usually 2-3 treatments are sufficient during the flowering period.
After planting the seedlings, it is advisable to spray it with ammonium nitrate diluted with water at the rate of 40 g per 10 liters. In the flowering phase, the concentration increases by 0.2%, and in the fruiting period it is already 0.9%. In total, 3 such procedures are required at the specified time, they are recommended to be combined with the introduction of chicken manure into the wells.
VIDEO: Simple and inexpensive recipes for feeding tomatoes
For this, both ready-made preparations and mineral fertilizers are suitable.
It is produced in dry form and is relevant only in the first month after planting the seedlings. Application rate - 25 g per sq. m in the greenhouse. The granules are placed around the hole, sprinkled with earth and watered with water.
The drug (20 g) is dissolved in 10 l of water. For him to help, it is enough to water the soil with them once a week. You cannot combine this method with organic!
It contains all existing micro and macro elements. For their assimilation by the plant, you need to water it with a solution of 20 g of the product + 15 liters of water. The frequency of the procedure is no more than 1 time per week.
Consumption rates - 25 g per medium-sized bucket of water. This volume is enough to feed tomatoes in the greenhouse for 20 square meters. m landing area. It is carried out throughout the growing season with an interval of 10 days.
It is used in its pure form for spraying and watering the soil. The composition contains boron, iron, molybdenum, manganese and other macro- and microelements, due to which the growth of the plant is actively stimulated. Do not process it more than once a month.
The first watering is carried out with a 0.05% solution 15 days after planting the seedlings, and the next, two more, with an interval of 3 weeks. Here the concentration should be doubled.
Of the mineral fertilizers, once a month, it is recommended to use a mullein, which (1 l) is diluted in water (10 l), mixed and poured under the roots of the bush. After that, you can water the ground the very next day. Dry manure also helps well, it is evenly distributed over the beds and left to decompose.
To strengthen the root part, accelerate photosynthesis and improve the taste of the fruit, you can combine several different fertilizers. Here are the best recipes:
- Add nitrophoska (20 g) to the mullein infusion (1 l).
- Combine 8 g of potassium sulfate, 15 g of superphosphate and 0.3 l of chicken manure infusion.
- Mix 200 g of wood ash, 0.7 l of liquid mullein and 20 g of superphosphate.
- In 1 liter of infusion of any herbs, add 5 g of copper sulfate and 250 ml of ash.
The prepared compositions are poured directly under the roots of the plant using a ladle in the morning or evening. It is extremely important that when the tomatoes are fed in a greenhouse made of polycarbonate or other material, the day is not very sunny, but there is no rain. The number of procedures is no more than 2 per month.
The number of root top dressing applications can be increased up to 5 times in 2 months if the bush is affected by aphids and other pests.
Special attention should be paid to feeding tomatoes with yeast, which can be carried out no earlier than 10 days after transplanting seedlings into the ground. To do this, follow this recipe - combine dry yeast (10 g), chicken droppings (0.3 L), water (8 L) and sugar - 25 g. Since this composition cannot be used in its pure form, dilute it 1 to 10 with water and using a watering can with a strainer, pour the fertilizer in a circle. It is an excellent growth stimulant! Repeat the procedure after 2 weeks if necessary. Double the amount of chicken manure this time.
A supplement of yeast and sugar for tomatoes can be even more useful if you add ascorbic acid to the mixture - only 2 grams per solution
Read with this article: Yeast plant food - recipe for its preparation
And the last option is to drop dolomite flour near the bush. For 1 hundred square meters with an acidity of less than 4.5%, 20 kg is quite enough. Fertilizer is distributed around the plant and immersed to a depth of about 5 cm. Note that the more acidic the soil, the more it is needed.
Now you also know how the correct feeding of tomatoes in the greenhouse should be carried out, what is needed for it and how to combine it all correctly. Such a procedure should definitely be included in the care of greenhouse tomatoes, because, growing them in conditions of insufficient light, high humidity, lower temperatures, they need much more of your attention and care. This is the only way to please yourself with a really good and tasty harvest!
VIDEO: The secret of fruitful tomatoes
Cucumbers in the open field and in the greenhouse
In principle, the agricultural technology of growing cucumbers in the open field and in the greenhouse (whether they are made of polycarbonate or from another material) does not differ significantly in terms of fertilizers. And in fact, and in another case for the season will require 5-6 dressings. Fertilizers are applied in small portions, but regularly.
Cucumbers in the open field are more dependent on the vagaries of the weather, respectively, they need more feeding
The main feeding method is root feeding. An aqueous solution of fertilizer is applied directly to the soil, then the bed is watered abundantly. Foliar dressing is considered auxiliary and is used in case of revealing any specific problems with cucumber bushes. For spraying, chemicals specially designed for cucumbers are widely used - Zircon, Epin, Ideal, Giant, Nursery. When preparing the solution, strictly follow the manufacturer's recommendations specified in the instructions.
When growing cucumbers, immediately and permanently give up horse manure. It contains ammonia in excessive concentration, which contributes to the deposition of nitrates in fruits, which are harmful to health.
It is advisable to alternate mineral fertilizers and organic matter of natural origin. When watering the bushes, try to prevent drops of solution from falling on the leaves. This can burn them badly.
Urea or urea is a nitrogen-containing fertilizer that can be used in low concentration until the end of the fruiting of cucumbers
The best time to feed is early morning or late evening. Refrain from the procedure if the sun is bright. The colder the summer is, the more actively foliar dressing should be used. In such conditions, the root system of cucumbers does not work well for absorption.
Plants are fed according to the following scheme:
- The first time the cucumbers are fed when 2-3 true leaves appear on the plant. To stimulate them to intensively build up green mass, use urea, diluting 25-30 g in 10 liters of water. An alternative for adherents of natural fertilizers is an infusion of fresh cow dung or chicken manure.
- After two weeks, feeding is repeated. This time, you don't have to insist on manure and droppings, but simply dilute a 0.5-liter can of the product in 10 liters of water, mix thoroughly and water the plants. To enhance the effect, add manganese sulfate (3 g) or boric acid (5 g).
- At the beginning of flowering, cucumbers need more potassium. Apply any mineral fertilizer in which it is contained, or wood ash, while preparing the infusion. To enhance the effect, urea can be added to the latter (no more than 10 g).
- The next 2-3 dressings should maximize the fruiting period. The application of fertilizers containing nitrogen and potassium will help achieve this goal. It is advisable to use top dressing of natural origin in order to eliminate the risk of unnecessary chemicals entering the cucumbers.
The greenhouse allows you to create the desired microclimate for cucumber bushes, but this does not negate the need for regular fertilization.
Video: how to properly fertilize cucumbers in the early stages of development
Fertilizer instructions for spring
After the soil thaws, the snow melts, the buds begin to swell, you can already start the first fertilization.
For garden crops, I usually fertilize the ridges 3-4 weeks before sowing, transplanting. I use organic matter - compost, rotted manure. Approximate calculation: 1 bucket per 1 m2.
The line of mineral preparations - before the spring digging or direct planting. I use traditional means:
- Phosphorus compounds (ammophos, superphosphate): 25 g per 1 m2.
- Nitrogen compounds (urea, ammonium nitrate): 30-35 g per 1 m2.
- Potash compositions (potassium sulfate, potassium sulfate, potassium magnesium): 20 g per 1 m2.
Recommendations for each crop:
- Potatoes. Continuous method: humus, rotted manure are distributed over the plantation, dug up. The alternative is economical but time consuming spot application. In each hole - ½ a shovel of humus and аты a shovel of ash.
- Garlic, onions, carrots, beets. The humus is distributed over the future beds, dug up in about 2-3 days after planting.
- Cucumbers. For this culture, I make special high ridges: the bottom layer is straw, manure, humus. Further - a layer of garden soil. Organic fertilizer, decomposing, will warm the substrate, which is needed for these heat-loving plants.
- Tomatoes. For the spring preparation of the beds I use peat, humus. After transplanting seedlings, I use mineral fertilizers.
- Strawberries, victoria. Bushes grow in one place for 3-4 years, greatly deplete the soil. For them I use a complex feeding: 0.5 liters of mullein infusion, 1 tbsp. a spoonful of ammonium sulfate per 10 liters of water.
I prefer organic spring feeding. But if you do not have humus, you can successfully replace it with the indicated mineral preparations.
Perennial plantings in spring need nitrogen root feeding:
- Trees. Weak (5%) solution of ammonium nitrate, urea, bird feces. The liquid is spread along the diameter of the trunk circle: ½ bucket per 1 m2.
- Shrubs. 40-50 g of ammonium sulfate or 25-30 g of ammonium nitrate per 1 m2.
If you used organic fertilizer in the fall (applied manure under bushes, trees), then it is better to skip the spring nitrogen fertilization - an excess of an element will not lead to good.
Foliar feeding of perennials - spraying with urea will help to quickly replenish the "reserves" of nitrogen:
- Apple trees: 0.3% solution.
- Pears: 0.1-0.2%.
- Stone plantings (cherries, sweet cherries, quince, apricots, peaches): 0.5%.
By the end of May, do not forget to re-feed the perennial berries (currants, raspberries, gooseberries):
- Superphosphate, potassium sulfate: 1-2% solutions.
- Necessary trace elements: boric acid - 0.01-0.05% solution, manganese sulfate - 0.1-0.5% solution.
Start with nitrogen, phosphate compounds - they are "responsible" for the green mass, the root system. Potash - for flowering, fruiting.
Using folk methods
When feeding garden dwellers in spring, I do not forget about proven folk methods. For trees after "hibernation" nitrogen organic fertilizer is good:
- Dissolve 500 ml of slurry in 2 liters of water.
- Pour the solution over the plantings along the diameter of the trunk circle. This "portion" is enough for 1 m2.
eggshells for spring feeding of the vegetable garden
The following improvised means are also useful to us gardeners:
- Bone meal, eggshell. This is the enrichment of the soil with calcium. For best efficiency, the fertilizer must be embedded in the substrate. This tool is also a mild soil deoxidizer.
- Onion peel. The infusion of this fertilizer will disinfect the soil. It is also good for foliar spraying as a pest control.
- Wood ash. Potash, phosphorus fertilizer, mild soil deoxidizer. It is also used as a remedy for pests.
- Siderata. These fast growing plantings enrich the soil with nitrogen. It is also useful to embed the greenest mass in the soil. Siderata are unpretentious - they can be sown immediately after the snow melts in order to use them as green fertilizer. The most common: mustard, rye, oats, rapeseed, clover, oil radish.
- Wood waste (sawdust, bark). Overripe, they enrich the substrate with nitrogen. Adding wood waste to the soil makes it soft and loose.
- Il. The fertilizer is collected in "stagnant" reservoirs - lakes, ponds. Contains plant and animal inclusions: in terms of nitrogen content, it is 4 times ahead of manure.
Do not forget about the preparation of "green infusions" from the tops of cultivated plants, weeds. The most effective fertilizer is from nettle, dandelion. The compositions are prepared according to a simple scheme:
- Grind the green mass with a shovel, pour it into a barrel, fill it with water.
- Insist for 7-14 days, stirring occasionally.
- Turbidity of the liquid, the appearance of an unpleasant odor is a sign of readiness.
"Green infusions" are concentrated - before fertilizing the plantings, they are diluted with water 1:10.
Foliar feeding plays a significant role for tomatoes. It is used in cases where useful trace elements are needed in small doses. But there are so many of them that it is not worth bringing in everything. To correctly determine which trace element is missing, you should know the signs of a deficiency:
- Gland. In the initial stage, the leaves turn yellow. Then, the color of the entire leaf is lost and only the veins on the leaves can be seen green. Growth is delayed. You can determine the lack of iron with iron sulfate (1 g per 1 liter of water). Brush the strip over the yellow sheet with the solution. If after a while a green stripe appears, then the diagnosis is correct. For foliar feeding, a nutrient mixture is prepared: 5 g of ferrous sulfate per 1 liter of water.
- Calcium. First of all, young leaves change in shape and curl. The border looks like it's been singed. With old leaves, the opposite reaction, they darken. If fruits are present, the surface layer rots. Struggle: 10 grams of calcium nitrate per 5 liters of water.
- Copper. Sluggish blue leaves curl to the outside. Discarding inflorescences. Recovery: 5 liters. solution of 1 g of copper sulfate.
- Manganese. Symptoms recur as with iron deficiency. Only yellowness appears in a chaotic manner and acquires a mosaic, variegated color. Recovery: for 5 liters of liquid 2.5 g of manganese sulfate.
- Molybdenum. The leaves turn yellow, curl, acquire speckled chlorosis. The veins remain intact. Recovery: for 5 liters of liquid 1 g of ammonium molybdate.
- Sulfur. Lettuce leaves, smoothly turning into a yellow tint. Stems are thin, brittle. Veins are red-blue. The young leaves are the first to suffer, then the old ones. Recovery: 5 liters. liquid 5 g of magnesium sulfate.
- Zinc. Brown spots appear on the leaves and veins. New leaves become smaller, speckling appears, as if after a burn. Recovery: for 5 liters of liquid 2.5 g of zinc sulfate.
- Chlorine. Young leaves grow deformed, small. The color is first yellow, then turns into a bronze color. Recovery: for 5 liters of liquid, 5 tsp of potassium chloride.
Foliar spraying of tomatoes is carried out once every 30 days. Preferably in the evening. To keep moisture as long as possible. The sun's rays can cause burns. Since the drops on the leaves work like a magnifying glass. Foliar dressing for tomatoes in the greenhouse leads to an accelerated harvest by 2 weeks.