Read the previous part. ← Pear - biological features and cultural history
Now, as a result of intensive breeding work, new varieties, much more economically valuable, have been bred.
In recent years, thanks to the efforts of breeders, the pear assortment has changed beyond recognition, and the widest selection of new varieties of various ripening periods has opened up to gardeners.
Thus, the State Register of Breeding Achievements in the North-West Region includes such new varieties as Lada and Chizhovskaya (summer), Otradnenskaya (autumn), Belorusskaya late (winter). In addition, it would be interesting for gardeners of the North-West to test varieties recommended for more southern regions in gardens with the most favorable microclimate, for example, Vidnaya, Children's, Cathedral, Petrovskaya, Skorospelka from Michurinsk (summer), Bere Moskovskaya, Velesa, Vernaya, Thumbelina , Pamyat Zhegalov, Rogneda (autumn), Ilya Muromets (winter) and some other foreign varieties.
The assortment of the Volga-Vyatka and Ural regions has also radically changed. Recently, it has been replenished with a significant number of new varieties, which are significantly superior in their economically valuable characteristics to the assortment available before. Such novelties of domestic selection include: Krasulya, Lel, Fabulous (summer), Berezhenaya, Dekabrinka, Krasnobokaya, Larinskaya, Myth, Moskvichka, Svarog, Uralochka (autumn). Local gardeners should also look out for new varieties from other regions and try them out in their gardens.
Below I give brief descriptions of some of the most interesting, from my point of view, pear varieties included in the State Register, as well as varieties that are promising for wide testing in collective, backyard and farm gardens.
An early summer variety of the Bashkir Research Institute of Agriculture. Included in the State Register for the Volga-Vyatka and Ural regions. A tree of medium growth with a round-pyramidal, compressed crown of medium density.
Fruits are below average size (70-80 g), bergamot-shaped, greenish-yellow at the time of ripening and light yellow, without blush when consumed. White pulp of medium density, tender, fine-grained, juicy with a spicy aroma, good taste.
The chemical composition of the fruits: dry matter - 16.4%, sugars - 7.9%, titratable acids - 0.48%, ascorbic acid - 5.3 mg / 100 g. After harvesting, the fruits are stored for no more than 15 days. It starts bearing fruit in the 6th year. The variety is winter-hardy, drought-resistant, scab-resistant, fruitful.
Early autumn variety. Derived in the same place. Included in the State Register for the Ural Region. The tree is medium-sized, fast-growing with a broad-pyramidal crown of medium density.
The type of fruiting is mixed - the fruits are placed on ringlets, spears and fruit twigs. Fruits are below average in size (80-92 g), elongated pear-shaped, one-dimensional, regular in shape. The color at the moment of removable maturity is yellowish-green with a brownish-red blush, in the state of consumer maturity it is greenish-yellow, the integumentary color is in the form of a bright blurry red blush on the smaller part of the fruit. The pulp is greenish of medium density, tender, fine-grained, juicy, sweet and sour, of medium taste.
The chemical composition of fruits: dry matter - 20.1%, sugars - 7.2%, titrated acids - 0.52%, ascorbic acid - 7.1 mg / 100 g. Fruits ripen in late August - early September and can be stored in within 40 days, fruits of universal use. The variety is fruitful, scab resistant.
Winter grade. Bred at the Belarusian Research Institute of Fruit Growing. The variety is included in the State Register for the North-West and Central regions. The tree is medium-sized with a rounded dense crown. Fruits are of medium size (110-120 g) with a regular wide pear-shaped shape.
The skin is thick, rough, the main color is yellowish-green, sometimes a pink blush appears on the sunny side. The pulp is white, of medium density, juicy, quite satisfactory sweet and sour taste with a light refreshing acid. The chemical composition of fruits: dry matter - 14.5%, sugars - 9.3%, acids - 0.1%, ascorbic acid - 12.1 mg / 100 g. Removal maturity occurs in mid - late September.
In January-February, the fruits acquire consumer maturity and can be stored in the refrigerator until March-April. The variety is partially self-fertile. The yield of the variety is good, but periodic over the years. Scab in epiphytotic years is affected to a moderate extent. Winter hardiness at the Bessemyanka level (above average).
Berezhenaya (Bere Yellow Improved, Bere Yellow)
New autumn variety. Bred at the Sverdlovsk Horticultural Selection Station. Included in the State Register for the Volga-Vyatka region. The tree is medium-sized with a round, firm crown.
Fruits of medium size, weighing 90-120 g, one-dimensional, round-pear-shaped or ovoid, regular shape, light yellow, no integumentary color. Creamy pulp of medium density, tender, very juicy, without stony cells, very good sweet and sour taste with a pleasant aroma.
Chemical composition of fruits: dry matter - 14.0%, sugars - 11.2%, titrated acids - 0.72%, ascorbic acid - 9.3 mg / 100 g, P-active substances - 362.9 mg / 100 g The harvesting period is from the third decade of September to the beginning of October. Consumer maturity occurs from early October to early December. The maximum keeping quality of fruits is 75 days. The variety is highly winter-resistant, the flowers are resistant to spring frosts, not affected by scab, the yield is high.
Summer ripening variety. The tree is weak. The crown is round, of medium density.
Fruits are small (50-60 g), pear-shaped and oval-shaped. The color of the fruits is yellow, their surface is ribbed. The pulp is creamy, tender, fine-grained, slightly juicy, with a good sweet taste.
The chemical composition of fruits: dry matter - 15.0%, sugars - 12.0%, titrated acids - 0.69%, ascorbic acid - 5 mg / 100 g, P-active substances - 125.3 mg / 100 g. in mid-August and stored for no more than a week. The variety is winter-hardy, scab resistant, productive, with regular fruiting. It starts bearing fruit in the 6th year after planting in the garden.
Ripening period in autumn. A selection variety of the South Ural Research Institute of Fruit and Vegetable and Potato Growing (YUNIIPOK). The tree is medium-sized with a rounded crown.
Fruits are pear-shaped, dark green with a slight burgundy blush on the smaller part of the fruit, medium or below average size (weighing 100 g, large up to 120 g). The pulp is white, rough, juicy, slightly aromatic, sour-sweet, of good taste.
The chemical composition of fruits: dry matter - 15.6%, sugars - 9.6%, titrated acids - 0.62%, ascorbic acid - 8.7 mg / 100 g. Ripen at the end of the second decade of September and can be stored for 1 -3 months. The fruits are consumed mostly fresh. The variety has a very late flowering period. Winter-hardy, productive, begins to bear fruit in the 6-7th year. Resistant to scab and pear gall mites.
Autumn variety, bred in YUNIIPOK. Included in the State Register for the Ural Region.
The tree is of medium vigor, characterized by strong growth at a young age, with the onset of fruiting, growth dies out sharply. Crohn's sparse, rounded. Fruits are medium in size (weight 130 g, large up to 150-180 g), one-dimensional, regular pear-shaped, green, greenish-yellow when ripe with a beautiful blurred raspberry blush on the smaller part of the fruit.
During storage, the pulp becomes very juicy, tender, slightly melting, sweet and sour, good taste. The fruits reach removable maturity at the end of the second decade of September and are stored for 1 to 3 months. The variety is winter-hardy, fruitful. Differs in high resistance to scab and pear gall mite. It starts bearing fruit in the 4th-5th year.
New summer variety of YUNIIPOK selection. The trees are medium-sized with a thin rounded crown.
Fruits are bergamot-like, round, greenish-yellow with an orange-red blush on most of the fruit, below average size, with an average weight of 90 g, maximum weight up to 120 g. The pulp is creamy, loose, fine-grained, semi-oily, very juicy with spice and medium aroma, very good taste.
Chemical composition: dry matter - 13.0%, sugars - 11.2%, acids - 0.49%, ascorbic acid - 8.5 mg / 100 g. Fruits are stored in the refrigerator for up to 15 days. Begins fruiting in the 5th year. The variety is winter-hardy, resistant to scab and pear gall mites. The yield is high - up to 40 kg from ten-year-old trees.
A variety of early summer ripening. Bred at the Moscow Agricultural Academy named after K. A. Timiryazev (Moscow Agricultural Academy). Included in the State Register for the North-West and Central Regions.
A tree of medium vigor with a conical crown of medium density. Fruits are formed on branches of various types: young (1-2 year old) fruit formations and annual branches. Fruits are below average size (weighing 100-110 g), regular obovate, light yellow, attractive integumentary color - in the form of a weak light red blurred blush. Rustiness is tender, visible only at the stalk.
The pulp is yellowish-white, medium juiciness, fine-grained, sour-sweet, good taste with a weak aroma. Contains dry matter - 15.7%, sugars - 7.2%, titratable acids - 0.27%, P-active substances - 92 mg / 100 g. Fruits ripen in mid-August.
Under normal storage conditions, consumer maturity lasts 10-15 days, at 00 C in the refrigerator - for 40-60 days. The variety is winter-hardy, scab resistant, regularly bearing, highly productive - 40-50 kg of fruits from ten-year-old trees, fruits do not crumble, are highly marketable. The variety enters the fruiting season 3-4 years after budding in the nursery.
A variety of autumn ripening, bred in YUNIIPOK. The tree is large, fast-growing, with a crown of medium density, irregular shape.
Fruits are one-dimensional, short pear-shaped, lumpy, green, light yellow when ripe, quite attractive, medium-sized, weighing 110 g, large - up to 140 g. The pulp is creamy, dense, juicy, fine-grained sweet-sour, good taste.
The chemical composition of fruits: dry matter - 13.8%, sugars - 9.7%, acids - 0.8%. The fruits ripen in early September and can be stored for 1.5-2 months. Good for fresh consumption, for processing into compotes, juices, dried fruits. It starts bearing fruit in the 5th year after planting in the garden.
The variety is highly winter-hardy, medium drought resistance, resistant to fungal diseases and pear gall mite. The annual yield is high - up to 46 kg per tree at the age of ten.
Summer variety of selection of Scientific Research Institute of Horticulture of Siberia named after M. Lisavenko (NIISS). Included in the State Register for the Ural, West Siberian and East Siberian regions. The tree is medium-sized with an elliptical, medium thickening, well-leafy crown.
The predominant type of fruit formations is fruit twigs. Fruits are below average, weighing 70-75 g, wide pear-shaped. The main color at the time of ripening is greenish, at full maturity it is greenish-yellow, the integumentary color is in the form of a dark red blush and stripes on a small part of the surface of the fruit. The pulp is white, tender, semi-oily, juicy, sweet and sour with spice, very good taste.
The chemical composition of fruits: sugars - 11.9%, titrated acids - 0.51%, ascorbic acid - 4.8 mg / 100 g, P-active compounds - 290 mg / 100 g. Fruits ripen at the end of the second decade of August and can stored for no more than a week. They are used fresh and for the preparation of compotes. Begins to bear fruit in the 4th year.
High yield, regular fruiting. The variety is winter-hardy, resistant to fungal diseases with dessert quality fruits. Demanding on moisture.
Late autumn variety of YUNIIPOK selection. Included in the State Register for the Volgo-Vyatka and West Siberian regions. The tree is medium-sized or tall, fast-growing, with a narrow-pyramidal crown of medium density.
Fruits are one-dimensional, bergamot-like or short-pear-shaped, greenish-yellow in color, when ripe golden yellow without blush, small (average weight 50-65 g, large - up to 95 g). Cream pulp of medium density, juicy, good sweet and sour taste, contains: dry matter - 14.8%, sugars - 10.2%, acids - 0.92%.
The fruits ripen in the second half of September and are stored for 1-3 months. Recommended for fresh consumption, processing for juices, preserves, dried fruits. The winter hardiness of the variety is average.
Differs in increased resistance of flowers to spring frosts. The variety is resistant to fungal diseases and pear gall mite, begins to bear fruit in the 4-5th year after planting in the garden and quickly increases the yield to 50 kg per tree.
A variety of autumn ripening, bred in the Moscow Agricultural Academy. Included in the State Register for the Volgo-Vyatka and Central regions. A tree of medium vigor with a dense conical crown.
The main type of fruiting is ringed, although fruits are also formed on spears, fruit twigs, annual branches from the apical and lateral buds. Fruits are of medium size (weighing 125 g), wide pear-shaped, variegated, greenish-yellow, the integumentary color is absent or very weak, in the form of a slight blush. Rustiness of the skin is often severe in the form of irregular spots.
The pulp is white, dense, very juicy, semi-oily, with granulations near the heart, good sweet and sour taste with a strong aroma.
The chemical composition of fruits: dry matter - 16.2%, sugars - 9.5%, acids - 0.48%, P-active substances - 220 mg / 100 g. They are removed from the tree in the second half of September; they acquire consumer maturity after a short storage by mid-October, retain good taste for 25-30 days, and when stored in a refrigerator at 00 C80-100 days.
The variety is fruitful - up to 40-50 kg per tree, resistant to scab and fruit rot; It is distinguished by regular fruiting, early maturity (comes into fruiting in the 3-4th year after planting), high marketability of fruits. Average winter hardiness. Fruits for universal use.
An early autumn variety of the NIISS selection. Included in the State Register for the Volgo-Vyatka, West Siberian and East Siberian regions.
The tree is medium-sized with a rounded thickened crown. Fruits are below average size (weighing up to 80 g), obtuse conical or wide pear-shaped. The main color of the fruit during consumption is yellow; integumentary - in the form of a weak red blurred and striped blush. The pulp of the fruit is creamy, tender, semi-oily, juicy, sweet and sour with a pleasant and light aroma, good taste.
The chemical composition of fruits: sugars - 9.5%, titrated acids - 0.44%, ascorbic acid - 9.5 mg / 100 g, P-active compounds - 125 mg / 100 g. Fruit picking occurs at the end of September, consumer maturity begins at the beginning of October. In room conditions, the fruits are stored for 15-20 days, in the refrigerator - until January.
It starts bearing fruit in the 4th-5th year. The winter hardiness of the variety is satisfactory. Highly resistant to fungal diseases. Bears fruit regularly, but in moderation.
Autumn variety of NIISS selection. Included in the State Register for the North-West and Central Black Earth Regions. The tree is below average vigor with an irregular, rounded-oval crown. Often forms skeletal branches at an acute angle, which subsequently break off under the weight of the fruit.
Fruiting is concentrated mainly on young ringlets and spears. Fruits of medium size (weighing 120-140 g), double-coconical or round, slightly ribbed, yellowish-green, blurred blush, red. The pulp is yellowish-white, sour-sweet without aroma, low juicy, medium density, fine-grained, fairly good taste, contains: dry matter - 15.8%, sugars - 8.2%, free acids - 0.3%, P-active substances - 137 mg / 100 g.
Removable ripeness of fruits occurs in the third decade of September, consumer - in 15-20 days. Shelf life - 25-30 days or more, in a refrigerator at 00 C - up to 100-120 days. The variety is characterized by high winter hardiness, resistance to scab, early maturation (begins to bear fruit in the 4-5th year after planting) and transportability.
Partially self-fertile. Harvest from a tree up to 30-40 kg. Fruiting is regular. High-quality jam, compotes and other processed products are obtained from the fruits.
Summer variety bred in YUNIIPOK. The tree is tall, fast-growing with a dense narrow-pyramidal crown.
Fruits are one-dimensional, very beautiful, regular pear-shaped, yellow-green with a blush on the sunlit side, above average size (average weight 180 g, maximum - up to 250 g). White pulp, medium density, tender, semi-oily, very juicy, good sweet taste with spice and faint aroma.
One of the best-tasting pear varieties in the Urals. The fruits ripen at the end of summer and are stored for no more than 10 days. Average annual yield.
The fruits on the tree are firmly held. Used for fresh consumption and juicing.
Derived in the same place. Ripening period is late autumn. Included in the State Register for the Volgo-Vyatka and West Siberian regions.
The trees are medium-sized with a spreading, rounded crown. Fruits are greenish-yellow, when ripe golden-yellow without blush, small, with an average weight of 44 g, large - up to 60 g, short pear-shaped, regular shape. Creamy pulp, medium density, fine-grained, juicy, good sweet and sour taste with medium aroma, contains: dry matter - 14.8%, sugars - up to 12.0%, acids - 0.8%. The fruits ripen in mid-September.
Having reached removable maturity, the fruits are kept on the tree for 7-10 days, and then they crumble together. Can be stored for up to 30 days. The variety has outstanding winter hardiness of wood and flower buds, in the Chelyabinsk region it did not have significant damage after the winter of 1978/79 when the air temperature dropped to -48.3 ° C.
Early-fruiting, fruiting occurs in the 4th year, the yield is growing rapidly, the variety gives up to 39 kg of fruits from a seven-year-old tree. Bears fruit even after severe spring frosts; thus, with a frost of -7 ° C during flowering in 1985, the yield was 21.6 kg per tree. Drought resistance is average, scab damage was not observed.
Late-summer variety, bred by the Moscow Agricultural Academy. Included in the State Register for the North-West, Central and Middle Volga regions. A tree of medium vigor with a narrow pyramidal crown, which becomes pyramidal with age.
Most of the fruits are formed on young ringlets and annual branches formed from lateral buds. Fruits of medium size weighing 120-140 g are pear-shaped, light yellow or yellow during the period of consumer maturity. The cover color is absent or very weakly expressed in the form of a blurred pink blush.
The pulp is light yellow or almost white, medium juiciness, semi-oily, melting, good sweet and sour refreshing taste. The chemical composition of the fruits: dry matter - 16.5%, sugars - 9.1%, titratable acids - 0.45%, P-active substances - 166 mg / 100 g. In typical weather conditions, the fruits ripen in the third decade of August and can go straight to food. They last 20-30 days, and at 00 C in the refrigerator - 60-120 days.
The variety is characterized by high winter hardiness, early maturity (begins to bear fruit in the 3-4th year after grafting, sometimes bears fruit already in the nursery in the second year after grafting). It is resistant to scab, but in wet years the fruits can crack and be affected by fruit rot. Productivity is stable and high - up to 30-60 kg from a ten-year tree.
Read the next part. Agrotechnics of growing pears →
Read all parts of the article "Pear in the North":
• Pear - biological features and cultural history
• Pear varieties included in the State Register
• Agricultural technology for growing pears
• Promising pear varieties
• Pruning pears, disease and pest control
candidate of agricultural sciences,
Vavilov All-Russian Research Institute of Plant Industry
Read also about the pear:
• Pear requirements for growing conditions
• Growing pears in the northwest
• Choosing the best pear varieties
• Preparing the soil for planting apple and pear
• How to plant apple, pear and plum
Pear varieties for the northern regions
Every gardener knows that by its nature a pear is a southern fruit plant. On the territory of Russia, industrial plantings of pears are located in the North Caucasian and Nizhnevolzhsky retons. The northern border of industrial pear cultivation corresponds to the line Khmelnitsky - Vinnitsa - Uman - Krivoy Rog - Zaporozhye - Rostov - Astrakhan.
As an amateur culture, the pear is spread much further to the north: to the line St. Petersburg - Yaroslavl - Nizhny Novgorod - Ufa. The pear is the most risky crop in the North-West region.
Nevertheless, there is a long experience of growing such landraces here as Bessemyanka, Tonkovotka, Dula Novgorodskaya, as well as varieties of the V.N. N.I. Vavilova Kordonovka, Krasnopakharskaya, Leningradskaya, Pushkinskaya, etc., testifies to the wide possibilities of pear culture in the northern regions, subject to certain planting and care rules.
Today, when many new varieties of pears have appeared with increased resistance to frost, high quality fruits, etc., these opportunities have increased.
After apple and cherry, in terms of frost resistance, the pear in the list of fruit crops takes the 3rd place, sharing it with the plum. For branches and flower buds of northern varieties, fatal temperatures are considered - 25-30 ° С, for roots - 8-10 ° С. Frosts below -30 ° C are tolerated only by the most frost-resistant varieties of folk selection related to the species common pear (Pyrus communis L), as well as copna of the most frost-resistant pear species Ussuri pear (P. Ussuriensis Maxim), which in their homeland are able to withstand frosts well below -40 ° C. The most vulnerable winter months for pears are November, December and February.
In recent years, significant progress has been achieved in pear breeding for northern latitudes: a number of varieties have been bred, which are included in the State Register of the Russian Federation. So, in VNIIGiSPR received Lyubimitsa Yanosheva, Michurinskaya beauty, In memory of Yakovlev, Severyanka, Skorospelka from Michurinsk, Bere Moscowskaya, Moskvichka, Kafedralnaya, Lada, Otradnenskaya, Rogneda , Nadyadnaya Efimova, in the South Ural Research Institute of Fruit and Vegetable and Potato Growing - Yarkaya, etc.
Growing healthy, fruitful pear trees in a northern garden is difficult, but also tempting.
In addition to choosing a variety adapted to your area, you must first determine whether the conditions in your garden are generally suitable for pears.
The following conditions are considered bad:
- if the site is located in a lowland on cold clay or peat soils, where groundwater comes close to the surface of the earth (less than 1.5 m), and in autumn and spring the site is waterlogged
- if the site is blown by cold winds and does not have good protection from them
- if it is located on the north or north-east slopes
- if the place is obscured by the shade of tall trees or buildings.
The listed conditions call into question the sustainable fruiting of the pear.
If everything is in order with all this, choose resistant varieties and plant them in compliance developed rules.
- it is better to plant in spring, the distance between seedlings on vigorous rootstocks should be 3-5 m, on low-growing ones - 4-5 x 1.5-2 m,
- the size of the planting holes - up to 100 cm in diameter and 50-60 cm deep,
- filling the pit with a complete composition of organic and mineral fertilizers: 2-3 buckets of humus or compost, up to 1 kg of superphosphate, 150 g of potassium sulfate or 1 kg of ash.
- The root collar of the seedling after planting and abundant watering should be established at ground level.
In northern conditions, it is mandatory:
1. Insulation of roots for the winter. Due to the fact that the roots of a pear are severely damaged at - 8 - 10 C in snowless winters, from autumn it is necessary to insulate the trunks with a layer of peat, foliage, etc.
2. Two-time (autumn and spring) whitewashing of boles and bases of skeletal branches with especially careful whitewashing of forks.
3. Formation of a short trunk (up to 50 cm), which contributes to better protection of the tree from frost damage and sunburn. The creation of a low stem usually begins in the nursery.
4. Maintaining a low crown. Pear trees are tall, which makes it difficult to care for, so when the plants reach a height of 3.5-4.5 m, you should think about reducing the crown. If the height of the crown has already significantly exceeded these dimensions, it is reduced in 2 steps: first, the very top is cut off together with the conductor, and the skeletal branches are shortened to lateral branches, and after 2-3 years the crown is reduced to the specified height.
5. Vaccination for hardy stem and skeleton formers. This measure will significantly weaken the damage to trees by frostbites and sunburn. For pears, such can serve as a variety of folk selection Tonkovotka, a variety of seedlings of the Ussuri Pear and pear No. 217, selected for this purpose at the V.I. I. V. Michurin.
6. Prevention of scab disease. Since pear plants are especially susceptible to scab disease that affects leaves, fruits and shoots, preventive measures can significantly affect yields. Collect and burn fallen leaves annually, or spray them thoroughly with 7% urea solution or 10% ammonium nitrate solution, and trees with 4-5% urea solution after autumn yellowing of the foliage.
In the future, the trees must be treated with a 1% Bordeaux mixture.
1st treatment - when the buds open in spring, then immediately after flowering, and 3rd and 4th in 2 weeks after the previous one.
7. Annual application of fertilizers in accordance with soil fertility: on average, as for an apple tree, they can amount to 4-5 kg of humus per 1 m2 for the autumn digging of near-trunk circles. 40 g superphosphate, 15 g potassium sulfate. The application of organic and mineral fertilizers is alternated over the years.
If the trees are frozen
- It is necessary as early as possible (preferably immediately after snowmelt) to feed the plants with nitrogen fertilizers readily available for the roots, for example, urea - 20 g per 1 m2 of the trunk circle. Cut out frozen branches only after the boundaries of damage are determined, be sure to cover the sections with garden pitch. In the future, the trees need to be provided with the best care - feeding, loosening, watering.
Winter-hardy productive varieties
In conclusion, we give brief descriptions of pear varieties that are recommended for cultivation and testing on personal plots of the North-West region of the Russian Federation:
Cathedral - the variety was bred in the Moscow Agricultural Academy named after K.A. Timiryazev, summer ripening period. A tree with a rounded dense crown, fruits weighing up to 130 g broadly conical, yellow, with a bright red blush. The pulp is oily, very good sweet and sour taste, with aroma. The variety is high-yielding, winter-hardy, shows field resistance to scab
Lada - the variety was bred in the Moscow Agricultural Academy named after SC Timiryazev. The tree is medium-sized, fruits weighing 100 g, obovate, light yellow, with a faint pink blush. Sour-sweet pulp, good taste, with aroma. Ripening occurs in mid-August, the fruits are stored for 2 weeks. The variety is fruitful, winter hardiness is satisfactory
Michurinsk beauty - autumn variety, bred at the All-Russian Research Institute of Genetics and Selection of Fruit Plants named after V.I. I.V. Michurin. The tree is undersized, with a sparse crown. Fruits are medium in size with a red blush on most of the surface, with numerous light spots. The pulp is white, tender, sweet with sourness, good taste. Average frost resistance, relatively scab resistant.
Muscovite - the variety was bred in the Moscow Agricultural Academy named after K. A. Timiryazeva. The tree is medium-sized. Fruits weighing up to 125 g are broad pear-shaped, greenish-yellow. White pulp, good taste, with aroma. Removable maturity occurs in the 2nd decade of September, fruits are stored for one month. Shows average winter hardiness and field resistance to scab.
Elegant Efimova - brought to VSTISP. A tree with a pyramidal crown, blankets weighing up to 130 g, pear-shaped, with a crimson-red integumentary color. The pulp is tender, oily, sour-sweet taste, with a slight astringency. The fruits are harvested in the 1st decade of September, they are stored for up to 2 weeks. Average winter hardiness, in wet years, fruits and leaves are prone to scab damage.
Otradnenskaya - autumn variety, bred at the Moscow Agricultural Academy named after K.A. Timiryazev. Medium-sized tree, fruits weighing 100 g, rounded-kubarevidny, yellow-green with a red blush. The pulp is sweet and sour, good taste. The variety shows field resistance to scab. Good winter hardiness, high yield.
In memory of Vavilov - early autumn variety, bred at the All-Russian Research Institute of Genetics and Selection of Fruit Plants named after V.I. I.V. Michurin. A low-growing tree, fruits weighing 125 g, wide pear-shaped, light yellow, with a slight blush. The pulp is oily, sweet, sour, aromatic.
The variety is fruitful, shows field resistance to scab and good winter hardiness.
Severyanka - a variety of summer ripening, bred at the All-Russian Research Institute of Genetics and Breeding of Fruit Plants named after I.V. Michurin. The tree is medium-sized, fruits weighing 80 g, blunt-conical, yellow, with a light pink blush. The pulp is firm, sweet, with a wine flavor. The variety has a high yield and field resistance to scab.
Severyanka Chelyabinsk - bred in the South Ural Research Institute of Horticulture and Potato Growing. The history of this variety is as follows: the seedling of the Severyanka variety was brought to the Chelyabinsk selection station of PA Zhavoronkov from the hybrid fund of PN Yakovlev, this seedling spread as No. 103 and was later named Severyanka Chelyabinskaya. However, the variety PN, zoned in the Tambov region. Yakovleva Severyanka has larger and sour fruits and differs significantly from the Severyanka of Chelyabinsk, zoned in the Chelyabinsk region. This is the most widespread variety in the Urals. The tree is medium-sized, medium-hardy, in severe winters it freezes significantly, but quickly recovers. Begins to bear fruit in the 4th-5th year, the yield is good, fruits weighing 40-70 g, large - up to 115 g, greenish-yellow, ripen in the 2nd half of August and can be stored for 10 days. The taste is good.
Chizhovskaya - the variety was bred in the Moscow Agricultural Academy named after KATimiryazeva. The tree is medium-sized, fruits weighing up to 140 g, obovate, yellow.
The pulp is white, melting, good sour-sweet taste. The fruits ripen in the 3rd decade of August, are stored for 1 month. High winter hardiness, good productivity. The scab is weakly affected.
Description of pear variety Lucas
The described pear has a French origin and the name - Beurre Alexandre Lucas (Bere Alexander Lucas, Bere Lucas). Its original rooted crop was the pear, which grows in the forests of the French department of Loire-et-Cher. The variety has been cultivated since the 1870s.
Here is a description of this French garden culture:
- the tree is a triploid (not serving as a pollinator)
- medium winter-hardy plants (up to –15… –20 ° С)
- tall trees with strong lateral branching and sagging branches under numerous fruits
- there is a pyramidal crown
- good resistance to pear and septoria.
Pear flavor and color Lucas
Lucas pears have good taste indicators, expressed by a tasting score of 4.6 points.
Pear color and flavor indicators:
- yellow color with gray dots, small spots and red-orange blush
- whitish-creamy, slightly grainy, inner content, harsh and juicy, with moderate sweetness and delicate, oily, spicy taste notes, there is a slight sourness and a delicate pear aroma.
The best crop pollinators are:
Indicators of the yield of the described culture:
- trees begin to bear fruit in the 3rd year
- yield - from 15 to 20.5 t / ha, from one crop - up to 55 kg
- fruits are above average in size and weigh from 180 to 320 g.
The fruits of Bere Luka pears have good keeping quality and transportability, as they do not spoil for a long time when ripening.
Pros and cons of the Lucas variety
- Among the advantages of the Lucas pear are:
- good and stable yield
- early ripening and fruiting
- large fruits
- good transportability and excellent keeping quality of fruits
- the versatility of the use of fruit products.
- The disadvantages of the variety are:
- you can only grow a crop in a warm climate
- medium resistance to diseases and parasites
- requires the presence of pollinators.
Purchase seeds included in the state register
State inspectors of the Rosselkhoznadzor Office for the Voronezh Region conducted a raid control and supervisory event near the Kupechesky market for compliance with the rules for the sale of seeds of agricultural plants
During the audit, it was revealed that citizens N and M Ruts, M and V Shpakovskie, Kuzmich and Povtoran sell packaged vegetable seeds (Russian size pepper, Black Prince tomatoes, Japanese truffle, Buffalo heart, Italian spaghetti, Claudia cucumber) without documents certifying sowing quality. These seed varieties are not included in the State Register of Breeding Achievements Permitted for Use.
The state register includes seeds that have passed a number of tests and have proven their effectiveness. If a seed variety is not included in the list, then it is not registered and has not been quality tested. Accordingly, the quality of these seeds may not correspond to the information stated on the package. Such varieties cannot be sold.
Modern varieties of rose hips, included in the state register, were bred in research institutes of the Far East, Moscow, the South Urals and the Tambov region (Michurinsk).
- The universal variety "Ankus" belongs to the early ripening hybrids. The medium-sized bush is formed by straight lettuce green shoots with a small downy cover. Light powerful thorns are located one by one along the entire shoot. Large leaves with a dense green hue have a shiny top surface that looks like leather. Along the edge of each leaf are small blunt teeth slightly bent inward. Medium-sized fruits with a sour-sweet taste with a pronounced aroma are painted in a beautiful orange-red color. The average weight of one berry is about 7.3 grams. The Ankus variety is liked for its good resistance to low temperatures.
- The commercial variety "Vorontsovsky 3" was obtained by crossing a brown rose and a Webb rose. For cultivation throughout Russia, it was proposed in 1974. Bushes about 2 meters high have a slightly spreading crown. On coffee-brown shoots with a slightly sloping top, the thorns are found only in the lower part. Inflorescences with pinkish petals cover the bushes from top to bottom. Small red fruits are covered with a thin skin. The weight of one berry varies from 1.8 to 2 grams. The Vorontsovskiy 3 variety attracts attention with its high content of vitamin C (3200 mg /%) and good yield.
- The technical grade "Yablochnyi" was created by the originator Strelets V.D. at the Timiryazev Academy. It was proposed for cultivation in all regions of Russia in 1999. Bushes with a height of 1.7 to 2 meters have a slightly spreading crown shape. Green-lettuce straight shoots turn gray over time. Spikes of various thicknesses and lengths are located along their entire length. Quite large leaves, painted in a dense green tint, consist of 5, 7 or 9 shiny leaves with small sharp teeth at the edges. During flowering, large flowers bloom on the plant with pink-crimson petals with yellow stamens and pistils in the middle. Alo-red berries with a sour-sweet taste are slightly flat in shape. The weight of one fruit is 4.3 grams. The variety "Apple" is liked for its high resistance to frost and a large amount of vitamin C (1400 mg /%).
- The technical grade "Titan" was obtained at the Timiryazev Academy by the originator Strelets V. D. It was proposed in 1999 for cultivation throughout our country. It belongs to the middle ripening hybrids. Bushes from 1.2 to 2 meters in height are formed by straight shoots covered with coffee-brown bark. Shoots from bottom to top are covered with thorns, located at an angle of 90 degrees. The lettuce-green rather large leaves, consisting of 5, 7 or 9 soft leaves with small teeth along the edges, give a special decorative effect to the bush. The medium-sized orange fruit resembles an elongated cylinder. The variety "Titan" attracts attention with its refreshing sweetish-sour berry taste, good tolerance to low temperatures and a high content of vitamin C (2030 mg /%).
- The technical grade "Rubin", like the previous one, was bred by V.D. Strelets. A powerful bush, which gives a strong annual growth, formed by strong branches with a red-coffee bark. Light, numerous thorns cover the shoots along the entire length. Medium-sized soft green leaves have no sheen. Orange-red berries with a pleasant sweetish-sour taste have an oval shape. The Rubin variety is distinguished by a large amount of vitamin C (3253mg /%) and excellent frost resistance.
- The parents of the Vitaminny VNIVI variety are cinnamon rose and Webb's rose. This hybrid was bred in Moscow. He passed state variety trials in 1974. A bush with a height of 1 to 2.5 meters is formed by erect branches, which are covered with thorns in the lower part. The red-orange berries ripen in 3-5 cluster-type inflorescences. Sour-sweet fruits contain a lot of vitamin C (3200-4200 mg /%).
- Variety "Bagryany" was obtained in the South Urals in the Sverdlovsk region by crossing the hybrid "Vitaminny" and "Vorontsovsky 1". Slightly spreading bushes of medium size (from 1 to 2 meters) are formed by green-salad smooth shoots, which are slightly bent towards the bottom. Small thorns at right angles to the shoot are found only in the lower part of the plant. Large smooth green leaves, consisting of concave leaf blades with small denticles along the edges, give a spectacular look to the "Crimson" variety. Light flowers bloom in small inflorescences, consisting of two pieces. The rather large red berries are pear-shaped and have an average weight of about 3.3 grams. The Crimson variety is famous for its good resistance to powdery mildew, large yields and excellent frost tolerance.
AUTUMN PEAR VARIETY.
According to the results of production tests for outstanding yield, resistance to disease and frost, excellent fruit taste, this variety was recently entered into the State Register of Breeding Achievements of the Russian Federation. Large, regular-shaped fruits of late summer period of consumption look very convincing. The best pollinator is Severyanka. The price is for 1 pear sapling.
Pear seedlings are mailed in AUTUMN. Pear is a very productive crop. Two to three times more fruits are usually harvested from one tree than from an apple tree. It often happens that under the weight of the harvest, skeletal branches break off from the trunk. With the beginning of fruiting, it is necessary to put supports under them - chatala.
The pear loves good hydration, it should be watered not often, but abundantly. The peculiarity of the pear is its low winter hardiness at a young age, therefore, to protect against frost in the early years, it is useful to bury the tree in a snowball. With the onset of fruiting, winter hardiness increases sharply.
All varieties we offer can withstand temperatures down to minus 40-45 ° C. It is very important to correctly determine the time of picking pear fruits. Summer and early autumn varieties should be removed as they ripen with the onset of yellowing of the skin color. Autumn and winter are harvested in the second or third decade of September before the onset of frost at night below minus 3 ° C. At a temperature of minus 3 ° C, pears freeze and cannot be stored for a long time. If you plan to plant large trees in the near future, then, given that solid, winter-hardy varieties of pears and plums are now bred, you can offer the following species composition: 5 apple trees, 5 pears and 4 plums. Do not get carried away with apple trees alone, in a year with a good harvest there is nowhere to put them. And the various fruits on the table have not bothered anyone yet.
In our country, pear is the second most popular seed crop.
Landing place. Despite the fact that the pear has always been considered a southern crop, the latest frost-resistant varieties created by domestic breeders grow well and bear fruit in most of Russia. The main thing is to choose the sunniest, brightly lit place for a young plant. In the shade and even partial shade, this culture will not bear fruit! Also K.A. Timiryazev said about the pear: "If a ray of the sun does not fall on the leaf of the plant, then its bud will remain sterile."
In addition, the pear does not tolerate acidic soils and close occurrence of groundwater (less than 1.5 m from the earth's surface). In this regard, at least three weeks before planting, on the site where it is planned to plant pears, the soil is completely deoxidized with dolomite flour (2 kg per 6 square meters of area).
A pear will grow poorly in a lowland, on cold clay or peat soils. The sunny area you choose should be well protected from the cold northerly winds.
Almost all varieties of pears are self-fertile, so for pollination it is recommended to plant 2-3 plants of different varieties next to each other.
Preparing for landing. It is better to plant a pear in the spring, so that over the summer it has time to root well and prepare for the first wintering. But seedlings with a closed root system take root well in the fall.
The distance between seedlings on vigorous rootstocks should be at least 3, on low-growing ones - 2 m, the distance between rows in both cases is 4.5-5 m.
Landing. Planting pit dimensions: diameter -80-90, depth - 50-60 cm. On light, well-permeable soils, add 1/2 bucket of rotted manure or compost, 1/4 bucket of wood ash, and 4 matchboxes of double superphosphate and 2 box of potassium sulfate.
On clay soils, the soil from the pits is completely removed, laying the upper fertile layer to one side, and removing the lower one outside the site. Then prepare the planting soil mixture. It is made up in equal amounts from: planting soil, river sand and rotted manure or compost, adding the same mineral fertilizers as in the first case.
The soil mixture is mixed well and filled with 2/3 of the pit volume. In the middle of the pit, a stake 1.5-1.7 m high is driven in. Two people are planted. One person places the seedling on the north side of the stake, after having spread the roots along the surface of the soil in the hole. The second one fills up the soil, tamping the soil well in the hole so that there are no voids between the roots. Then the seedling is watered from a watering can with a rain nozzle (at least three watering cans are poured under one plant so that the earth is soaked to a depth of 70 cm). After planting and watering, the root collar should be at the level of the soil surface.
The trunks are mulched with peat chips or freshly cut grass to slow down the growth of weeds and reduce the evaporation of moisture from the soil.
Often, scientists recommend shortening the aboveground part and taproot when planting seedlings of fruit crops in order to balance the aboveground and underground parts. However, the pear does not tolerate such an intervention very well. It is better not to prune young plants at all before rooting. Seedlings with a closed root system, formed in the nursery, are not touched at all.
Fertilizers. Fertilizers are applied annually. In the spring, at the end of April, rotted manure or compost is introduced, 1 bucket per plant. In mid-May, all pear seedlings are watered with a urea solution (1 tablespoon per 10 liters of water). In the summer (at the end of June), 1 handful of superphosphate is applied under each plant. In the fall, they are fed with potassium sulfate (2 matchboxes for one plant) or potassium magnesium - for better preparation for winter.
Formation of the crown. A year after planting, in the spring, the central conductor is shortened, leaving 40-50 cm from the growth. The side shoots are bent down to an angle of 90 degrees with the help of twine or braid and fixed in this position, tying to bricks, hammered pegs, etc. After bending back, the lateral shoots are shortened so that the cut is above the downward bud. This is done so that nutrients enter the branches, and the fruit buds of the next year are laid there.
This operation is repeated every year for 5-6 years. During this time, the tree will form a fruiting crown, no more than 2.5-2.8 m in height. The central conductor is then cut off, transferring it to a strong lateral branch.
Diseases. The most common pear disease is scab, which affects leaves, fruits and shoots. Better to prevent it than to cure it! To do this, in the fall, all fallen leaves and rotting fruits are collected and burned, and the trees, after harvesting, are sprayed with a 2% solution of Bordeaux liquid.
In the spring, three treatments are done with the same Bordeaux liquid, but in a lower concentration (1%): 1st - after the opening of the buds in spring, 2nd - after the end of flowering, 3rd - two weeks after the previous one.
Preparing for winter. The bark of a pear is very delicate, it can be badly damaged in spring from frost damage and sunburn, so it needs a double whitewash: in autumn (in November) and in spring (in March).
The root system of this culture is prone to freezing, especially in a young plant. Therefore, the trunks of pears up to 5 years old need to be covered for the winter with leaf litter and on top in one layer with spruce branches.
Features of autumn planting of seedlings of fruit trees
If you received your seedlings in late autumn or even after snowfall, we recommend that you do not rush to plant them in a permanent place, but keep them until spring by the following methods:
The place for digging seedlings is chosen the highest, where stagnation of water is least possible. Dig a groove 50 cm deep from west to east. The south side is made inclined, the north - vertical.
The seedlings are laid out in the groove one at a time (in no case in a bundle), in an inclined position (at an angle of 45 degrees), with the top to the south. The roots and half of the stem are covered with loose soil and watered well so that the moistened earth penetrates into all the voids between the roots, after which the soil is poured again.
So that the roots of buried plants do not freeze, their location is covered with peat, humus or fertile soil. To protect against mice, spruce or juniper branches are placed between the seedlings and on top.
B. Storage in a snow pile.
For this, the seedlings are folded into a bunch so that the root collars are at the same level. Tied from top to bottom, gently pressing the branches. The roots are covered on all sides with a moist substrate - peat, sawdust, even better with moss - and wrapped in burlap.Then the entire bundle is wrapped in a film, tied and buried deep in the snow, finding a place protected from the sun. So that the snow cover does not melt longer, sawdust or peat is poured on top.
We advise you to carefully consider the wintering of the label with the name of the variety. Before digging, they are wrapped in foil or plastic wrap and tied to the seedlings with twine that does not rot in the soil.
If you are interested in the topic of the article, we also suggest finding out the opinions of experts and gardeners about columnar varieties of apple trees in the following videos:
For several years she worked as a TV program editor with leading producers of ornamental plants in Ukraine. At the dacha, of all types of agricultural work, he prefers harvesting, but for the sake of this she is ready to regularly weed, pick, pinch, water, tie, thin out, etc. I am convinced that the most delicious vegetables and fruits are grown by your own hands!
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Convenient Android applications have been developed to help gardeners and gardeners. First of all, these are sowing (lunar, flower, etc.) calendars, thematic magazines, a selection of useful tips. With their help, you can choose a day favorable for planting each type of plant, determine the timing of their ripening and harvest on time.
Humus - rotted manure or bird droppings. It is prepared like this: manure is piled in a heap or pile, sandwiched with sawdust, peat and garden soil. The collar is covered with a film to stabilize the temperature and humidity (this is necessary to increase the activity of microorganisms). The fertilizer "ripens" within 2-5 years - depending on external conditions and the composition of the feedstock. The output is a loose homogeneous mass with a pleasant smell of fresh earth.
Both humus and compost are rightfully the basis of organic farming. Their presence in the soil significantly increases the yield and improves the taste of vegetables and fruits. They are very similar in properties and appearance, but they should not be confused. Humus - rotted manure or bird droppings. Compost - rotted organic residues of various origins (spoiled food from the kitchen, tops, weeds, thin twigs). Humus is considered a better fertilizer, compost is more readily available.
In Australia, scientists have begun experiments to clone several grape varieties from colder regions. Climate warming, which is predicted for the next 50 years, will lead to their disappearance. Australian varieties have excellent characteristics for winemaking and are not susceptible to diseases common in Europe and America.
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One of the most convenient methods to prepare a grown crop of vegetables, fruits and berries is freezing. Some people believe that freezing leads to a loss of the nutritional and beneficial properties of plant foods. As a result of the research, scientists have found that there is practically no decrease in nutritional value when frozen.
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The novelty of American developers is the Tertill robot, which weeds in the garden. The device was invented under the guidance of John Downes (the creator of the robot vacuum cleaner) and works autonomously in all weather conditions, moving on uneven surfaces on wheels. In doing so, he cuts all plants below 3 cm with the built-in trimmer.
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